Superseded by ETRN.
(01 Mar 1997)
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1. To cause to move upon a center, or as if upon a center; to give circular motion to; to cause to revolve; to cause to move round, either partially, wholly, or repeatedly; to make to change position so as to present other sides in given directions; to make to face otherwise; as, to turn a wheel or a spindle; to turn the body or the head. "Turn the adamantine spindle round." (Milton) "The monarch turns him to his royal guest." (Pope)
2. To cause to present a different side uppermost or outmost; to make the upper side the lower, or the inside to be the outside of; to reverse the position of; as, to turn a box or a board; to turn a coat.
3. To give another direction, tendency, or inclination to; to direct otherwise; to deflect; to incline differently; used both literally and figuratively; as, to turn the eyes to the heavens; to turn a horse from the road, or a ship from her course; to turn the attention to or from something. "Expert when to advance, or stand, or, turn the sway of battle." "Thrice I deluded her, and turned to sport Her importunity." (Milton) "My thoughts are turned on peace." (Addison)
4. To change from a given use or office; to divert, as to another purpose or end; to transfer; to use or employ; to apply; to devote. "Therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David." (1 Chron. X. 14) "God will make these evils the occasion of a greater good, by turning them to advantage in this world." (Tillotson) "When the passage is open, land will be turned most to cattle; when shut, to sheep." (Sir W. Temple)
5. To change the form, quality, aspect, or effect of; to alter; to metamorphose; to convert; to transform; often with to or into before the word denoting the effect or product of the change; as, to turn a worm into a winged insect; to turn green to blue; to turn prose into verse; to turn a Whig to a Tory, or a Hindoo to a Christian; to turn good to evil, and the like. "The Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee." (Deut. Xxx. 3) "And David said, O Lord, I pray thee, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness." (2 Sam. Xv. 31) "Impatience turns an ague into a fever." (Jer. Taylor)
6. To form in a lathe; to shape or fashion (anything) by applying a cutting tool to it while revolving; as, to turn the legs of stools or tables; to turn ivory or metal. "I had rather hear a brazen canstick turned." (Shak)
7. Hence, to give form to; to shape; to mold; to put in proper condition; to adapt. "The poet's pen turns them to shapes." "His limbs how turned, how broad his shoulders spread !" (Pope) "He was perfectly well turned for trade." (Addison)
To sicken; to nauseate; as, an emetic turns one's stomach. To be turned of, be advanced beyond; as, to be turned of sixty-six. To turn a cold shoulder to, to treat with neglect or indifference. To turn a corner, to go round a corner. To turn adrift, to cast off, to cease to care for.
<mechanics> To turn a flange, to pass round it, and take a position behind it or upon its side. To turn a penny, or To turn an honest penny, to make a small profit by trade, or the like. To turn around one's finger, to have complete control of the will and actions of; to be able to influence at pleasure. To turn aside, to avert. To turn away. To dismiss from service; to discard; as, to turn away a servant. To avert; as, to turn away wrath or evil. To turn back. To give back; to return. "We turn not back the silks upon the merchants, When we have soiled them." (Shak) To cause to return or retrace one's steps; hence, to drive away; to repel. To turn down. To fold or double down. To turn over so as to conceal the face of; as, to turn down cards. To lower, or reduce in size, by turning a valve, stopcock, or the like; as, turn down the lights. To turn in. To fold or double under; as, to turn in the edge of cloth. To direct inwards; as, to turn the toes in when walking. To contribute; to deliver up; as, he turned in a large amount. To turn in the mind, to revolve, ponder, or meditate upon; with about, over, etc. " Turn these ideas about in your mind." . To turn off. To dismiss contemptuously; as, to turn off a sycophant or a parasite. To give over; to reduce. To divert; to deflect; as, to turn off the thoughts from serious subjects; to turn off a joke. To accomplish; to perform, as work.
<mechanics> To remove, as a surface, by the process of turning; to reduce in size by turning. To shut off, as a fluid, by means of a valve, stopcock, or other device; to stop the passage of; as, to turn off the water or the gas. To turn on, to cause to flow by turning a valve, stopcock, or the like; to give passage to; as, to turn on steam. To turn one's coat, to change one's uniform or colours; to go over to the opposite party. To turn one's goods or money, and the like, to exchange in the course of trade; to keep in lively exchange or circulation; to gain or increase in trade. To turn one's hand to, to adapt or apply one's self to; to engage in. To turn out. To drive out; to expel; as, to turn a family out of doors; to turn a man out of office. "I'll turn you out of my kingdom." (Shak) to put to pasture, as cattle or horses. To produce, as the result of labour, or any process of manufacture; to furnish in a completed state. To reverse, as a pocket, bag, etc, so as to bring the inside to the outside; hence, to produce. To cause to cease, or to put out, by turning a stopcock, valve, or the like; as, to turn out the lights. To turn over. To change or reverse the position of; to overset; to overturn; to cause to roll over. To transfer; as, to turn over business to another hand. To read or examine, as a book, while, turning the leaves. "We turned o'er many books together." . To handle in business; to do business to the amount of; as, he turns over millions a year. To turn over a new leaf. See Leaf. To turn tail, to run away; to retreat ignominiously. To turn the back, to flee; to retreat. To turn the back on or upon, to treat with contempt; to reject or refuse unceremoniously. To turn the corner, to pass the critical stage; to get by the worst point; hence, to begin to improve, or to succeed. To turn the die or dice, to change fortune. To turn the edge or point of, to bend over the edge or point of so as to make dull; to blunt. To turn the head or brain of, to make giddy, wild, insane, or the like; to infatuate; to overthrow the reason or judgment of; as, a little success turned his head. To turn the scale or balance, to change the preponderance; to decide or determine something doubtful. To turn the stomach of, to nauseate; to sicken. To turn the tables, to reverse the chances or conditions of success or superiority; to give the advantage to the person or side previously at a disadvantage. To turn tippet, to make a change. To turn to profit, advantage, etc, to make profitable or advantageous. To turn up. To turn so as to bring the bottom side on top; as, to turn up the trump. To bring from beneath to the surface, as in plowing, digging, etc. To give an upward curve to; to tilt; as, to turn up the nose. To turn upon, to retort; to throw back; as, to turn the arguments of an opponent upon himself. To turn upside down, to confuse by putting things awry; to throw into disorder. "This house is turned upside down since Robin Ostler died." (Shak)
Origin: OE. Turnen, tournen, OF. Tourner, torner, turner, F. Tourner, LL. Tornare, fr. L. Tornare to turn in a lathe, to rounds off, fr. Tornus a lathe, Gr. A turner's chisel, a carpenter's tool for drawing circles; probably akin to E. Throw. See Throw, and cf. Attorney, Return, Tornado, Tour, Tournament.
1. To move round; to have a circular motion; to revolve entirely, repeatedly, or partially; to change position, so as to face differently; to whirl or wheel round; as, a wheel turns on its axis; a spindle turns on a pivot; a man turns on his heel. "The gate . . . On golden hinges turning." (Milton)
4. To be deflected; to take a different direction or tendency; to be directed otherwise; to be differently applied; to be transferred; as, to turn from the road. "Turn from thy fierce wrath." (Ex. Xxxii. 12) "Turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways." (Ezek. Xxxiii. 11) "The understanding turns inward on itself, and reflects on its own operations." (Locke)
5. To be changed, altered, or transformed; to become transmuted; also, to become by a change or changes; to grow; as, wood turns to stone; water turns to ice; one colour turns to another; to turn Mohammedan. "I hope you have no intent to turn husband." (Shak) "Cygnets from gray turn white." (Bacon)
8. To invert a type of the same thickness, as temporary substitute for any sort which is exhausted. To turn about, to face to another quarter; to turn around. To turn again, to come back after going; to return. To turn against, to become unfriendly or hostile to. To turn aside or away. To turn from the direct course; to withdraw from a company; to deviate. To depart; to remove. To avert one's face. To turn back, to turn so as to go in an opposite direction; to retrace one's steps. To turn in. To bend inward. To enter for lodgings or entertainment. To go to bed. To turn into, to enter by making a turn; as, to turn into a side street. To turn off, to be diverted; to deviate from a course; as, the road turns off to the left. To turn on or upon. To turn against; to confront in hostility or anger. To reply to or retort. To depend on; as, the result turns on one condition. To turn out. To move from its place, as a bone. To bend or point outward; as, his toes turn out. (c) To rise from bed. To come abroad; to appear; as, not many turned out to the fire. To prove in the result; to issue; to result; as, the cropsturned out poorly. To turn over, to turn from side to side; to roll; to tumble. To turn round. To change position so as to face in another direction. To change one's opinion; to change from one view or party to another. To turn to, to apply one's self to; have recourse to; to refer to. "Helvicus's tables may be turned to on all occasions." . To turn to account, profit, advantage, or the like, to be made profitable or advantageous; to become worth the while. To turn under, to bend, or be folded, downward or under. To turn up. To bend, or be doubled, upward. To appear; to come to light; to transpire; to occur; to happen.
2. Change of direction, course, or tendency; different order, position, or aspect of affairs; alteration; vicissitude; as, the turn of the tide. "At length his complaint took a favorable turn." (Macaulay) "The turns and varieties of all passions." (Hooker) "Too well the turns of mortal chance I know." (Pope)
3. One of the successive portions of a course, or of a series of occurrences, reckoning from change to change; hence, a winding; a bend; a meander. "And all its [the river's] thousand turns disclose. Some fresher beauty varying round." (Byron)
5. Successive course; opportunity enjoyed by alternation with another or with others, or in due order; due chance; alternate or incidental occasion; appropriate time. "Nobleness and bounty . . . Had their turns in his [the king's] nature." "His turn will come to laugh at you again. (Denham). "Every one has a fair turn to be as great as he pleases." (Collier)
6. Incidental or opportune deed or office; occasional act of kindness or malice; as, to do one an ill turn. "Had I not done a friendes turn to thee?" (Chaucer) "thanks are half lost when good turns are delayed." (Fairfax)
8. Form; cast; shape; manner; fashion; used in a literal or figurative sense; hence, form of expression; mode of signifying; as, the turn of thought; a man of a sprightly turn in conversation. "The turn of both his expressions and thoughts is unharmonious." (Dryden) "The Roman poets, in their description of a beautiful man, often mention the turn of his neck and arms." (Addison)
15. An embellishment or grace (marked thus,), commonly consisting of the principal note, or that on which the turn is made, with the note above, and the semitone below, the note above being sounded first, the principal note next, and the semitone below last, the three being performed quickly, as a triplet preceding the marked note. The turn may be inverted so as to begin with the lower note, in which case the sign is either placed on end thus, or drawn thus . By turns. One after another; alternately; in succession. at intervals. "[They] feel by turns the bitter change." . In turn, in due order of succession. To a turn, exactly; perfectly; as, done to a turn; a phrase alluding to the practice of cooking on a revolving spit. To take turns, to alternate; to succeed one another in due order. Turn and turn about, by equal alternating periods of service or duty; by turns. Turn bench, a simple portable lathe, used on a bench by clock makers and watchmakers. Turn buckle. See Turnbuckle, in Vocabulary. Turn cap, a sort of chimney cap which turns round with the wind so as to present its opening to the leeward.
(01 Mar 1998)
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