1. Hyperexcitability of nerves and muscles due to decrease in concentration of extracellular ionised calcium, which may be associated with such conditions as parathyroid hypofunction, vitamin D deficiency and alkalosis or result from ingestion of alkaline salts, it is characterised by carpopedal spasm, muscular twitching and cramps, laryngospasm with inspiratory stridor, hyperreflexia and choreiform movements.

2. Tetanus.

(11 Mar 2008)