<prefix>

A prefix, meaning upon, beside, among, on the outside, above, over, following, or subsequent to.

It becomes ep- before a vowel or 'h', as in epoch, and eph- before a Greek aspirate, as in ephemeral.

Origin: Gr. epi on, upon, to; akin to Skr. api besides, and prob. to L. ob to, before, on account of, and perh. to E. of, off.

(05 Feb 2009)

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epiandrosteronemedical dictionary

3b-hydroxy-5a-androstan-17-one;inactive isomer (3b instead of 3a) of androsterone; found in urine and in testicular and ovarian tissue.

Synonyms: isoandrosterone.

(05 Mar 2000)

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A toxic alkaloid extracted from the venom of a South American frog, Epipedobates tricolor. The venom has been used as an arrow poison by native hunters; exerts analgesia by a mechanism other than activation of opiate receptors or cyclooxygenase inhibition.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Living on the surface of bottom sediments in a water body.

(09 Oct 1997)

ephyra, epi-, epiandrosterone, epibatidine < Prev | Next > epiblast, epiblastic, epiblema

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<biology> The outer layer of the blastoderm; the ectoderm. See Blastoderm, Delamination.

(01 Mar 1998)

epi-, epiandrosterone, epibatidine, epibenthic < Prev | Next > epiblastic, epiblema, epiblepharon

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<biology> Of or relating to, or consisting of, the epiblast.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<botany> The epidermal cells of rootlets, specially adapted to absorb liquids.

Origin: NL, fr. Gr. A cover; over + to throw.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epiblepharonmedical dictionary

A congenital horizontal skin fold near the margin of the eyelid, caused by abnormal insertion of muscle fibres. In the upper lid, it simulates blepharochalasis; in the lower lid, it causes a turning inward of the lashes.

Origin: epi-+ G. Blepharon, eyelid

(05 Mar 2000)

epibenthic, epiblast, epiblastic, epiblema < Prev | Next > epibole, epibolic, epiboly

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1. A process involved in gastrulation of telolecithal eggs in which, as a result of differential growth, some of the cells of the protoderm move over the surface toward the lips of the blastopore.

2. Growth of epithelium in an organ culture to surround the underlying mesenchymal tissue.

Origin: G. Epibole, a throwing or laying on

(05 Mar 2000)

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<biology> Growing or covering over; said of a kind of invagination. See Invagination.

Origin: Gr. To throw upon, add to; upon + to throw.

(01 Mar 1998)

epiblastic, epiblema, epiblepharon, epibole < Prev | Next > epiboly, epibranchial, epibranchial placodes

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<biology> Epibolic invagination. See Invagination.

Origin: Cf. Gr. A throwing upon.

(01 Mar 1998)

epiblema, epiblepharon, epibole, epibolic < Prev | Next > epibranchial, epibranchial placodes, epibulbar

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epibranchialmedical dictionary

<anatomy> Pertaining to the segment between the ceratobranchial and pharyngobranchial in a branchial arch.

An epibranchial cartilage or bone.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + branchial.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epibranchial placodesmedical dictionary

Ectodermal thickenings associated with the more dorsal parts of the embryonic branchial grooves; their cells are believed to contribute to formation of the cranial ganglia, especially those of nerves IX and X.

(05 Mar 2000)

epibole, epibolic, epiboly, epibranchial < Prev | Next > epibulbar, epicalyx, epicanthal fold

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Upon a bulb of any kind; specifically, upon the eyeball.

(05 Mar 2000)

epibolic, epiboly, epibranchial, epibranchial placodes < Prev | Next > epicalyx, epicanthal fold, epicanthus

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A whorl of bracts, just below a flower, looking like a second calyx.

(09 Oct 1997)

epicanthal foldmedical dictionary

A fold of skin that comes down across the inner angle of the eye. The epicanthal fold is more common in children with Down syndrome and other birth defects than normal children and so is of value in diagnosis. Although some dictionaries state that this eye fold is found in peoples of Asian origin, this is not true. The normal Asian eyefold is continuous with the lower edge of the upper eyelid and actually appears distinctly different than a true epicanthal fold.

(12 Dec 1998)

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Preferred term: epicanthal fold

epicanthus inversusmedical dictionary

A crescentic upward fold of skin from the lower eyelid at the inner canthus; frequent in congenital blepharoptosis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epicanthus palpebralismedical dictionary

Epicanthus arising from the upper lid above the tarsal portion and extending to the lower portion of the orbit.

(05 Mar 2000)

epicanthus supraciliarismedical dictionary

Epicanthus arising from the region of the eyebrows and extending toward the tear sac.

(05 Mar 2000)

epicanthus tarsalismedical dictionary

Epicanthus arising from the tarsal fold and disappearing in the skin close to the inner canthus.

(05 Mar 2000)

The portion of the oesophagus from where it passes through the diaphragm to the stomach.

Origin: epi-+ G. Kardia, heart

(05 Mar 2000)

<anatomy> Of or relating to the epicardium.

(01 Mar 1998)

1. Relating to the epicardia.

2. Relating to the epicardium.

(05 Mar 2000)

epicardial fat signmedical dictionary

<radiology> Two lucent lines on lateral CXR anterior to heart, subepicardial fat around LAD, anterior mediastinal fat, lines seen in 40% of all lateral CXRs, if separation greater than 2 mm most likely to be consider pericardial effusion or thickening

(12 Dec 1998)

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The inner lining of the serous pericardium lying directly on the heart, forming the outermost layer of the heart wall.

(27 Sep 1997)

epicardia, epicardiac, epicardial, epicardial fat sign < Prev | Next > epicarican, epicarp, epicentral

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<zoology> An isopod crustacean, parasitic on shrimps.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + Gr, a shrimp.

(01 Mar 1998)

epicardiac, epicardial, epicardial fat sign, epicardium < Prev | Next > epicarp, epicentral, epicerastic

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<plant biology> The outer layer of the wall of a fruit, the 'skin'.

(15 Jan 1998)

epicardial, epicardial fat sign, epicardium, epicarican < Prev | Next > epicentral, epicerastic, epichlorohydrin

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<anatomy> Arising from the centrum of a vertebra.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + centrum.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<medicine> Lenient; assuaging.

Origin: Gr. Tempering the humors; + to mix: cf. F. Epicerastique.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epichlorohydrinmedical dictionary

<chemical>

(chloromethyl)oxirane. A chlorinated epoxy compound used as a solvent in a variety of resins, gums, paints, etc. It has shown anti-fertility activity in males. According to the fourth annual report on carcinogens (ntp 85-002, 1985), epichlorohydrin may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.

Pharmacological action: carcinogens, contraceptive agents, male, solvents.

Chemical name: Oxirane, (chloromethyl)-

(12 Dec 1998)

epicarican, epicarp, epicentral, epicerastic < Prev | Next > epichordal, epicillin, epicleidium

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<anatomy> Upon or above the notochord; applied especially. To a vertebral column which develops upon the dorsal side of the notochord, as distinguished from a perichordal column, which develops around it.

(01 Mar 1998)

epicarp, epicentral, epicerastic, epichlorohydrin < Prev | Next > epicillin, epicleidium, epiclinal

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epicentral, epicerastic, epichlorohydrin, epichordal < Prev | Next > epicleidium, epiclinal, epicoele

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<anatomy, ornithology> A projection, formed by a separate ossification, at the scapular end of the clavicle of many birds.

Origin: NL, fr. Gr. Upon + a little key.

(01 Mar 1998)

epicerastic, epichlorohydrin, epichordal, epicillin < Prev | Next > epiclinal, epicoele, epicolic, epicomus

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<botany> Situated on the receptacle or disk of a flower.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + Gr. A couch.

(01 Mar 1998)

epichlorohydrin, epichordal, epicillin, epicleidium < Prev | Next > epicoele, epicolic, epicomus

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<anatomy> A cavity formed by the invagination of the outer wall of the body, as the atrium of an amphioxus and possibly the body cavity of vertebrates.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + Gr. A hollow.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<anatomy> Situated upon or over the colon; applied to the region of the abdomen adjacent to the colon.

(01 Mar 1998)

epicillin, epicleidium, epiclinal, epicoele < Prev | Next > epicomus, epicondylalgia, epicondylalgia externa

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Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller parasite is joined to the larger autosite at the top of the head.

See: conjoined twins.

Origin: epi-+ G. Kome, hair of the head

(05 Mar 2000)

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epicondylalgiamedical dictionary

<symptom>

Pain in an epicondyle of the humerus or in the tendons or muscles originating therefrom.

Origin: epicondyle + G. Algos, pain

(05 Mar 2000)

epiclinal, epicoele, epicolic, epicomus < Prev | Next > epicondylalgia externa, epicondylar, epicondyle

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epicondylalgia externamedical dictionary

Preferred term: tennis elbow

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<anatomy> Pertaining to, or resembling, an epicondyle.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<anatomy> A boney projection on the inner side of the distal end of the humerus; the internal condyle.

(30 Dec 1998)

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Plural of epicondylus.

(05 Mar 2000)

epicondylianmedical dictionary

Preferred term: epicondylic

epicondylalgia externa, epicondylar, epicondyle, epicondyli < Prev | Next > epicondylic, epicondylitis, epicondylus

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Relating to an epicondyle or to the part above a condyle.

Synonyms: epicondylian.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epicondylitismedical dictionary

<pathology> Inflammation of the epicondyle or of the tissues adjoining the epicondyle of the humerus.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

epicondyle, epicondyli, epicondylian, epicondylic < Prev | Next > epicondylus, epicondylus lateralis humeri

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Synonyms: epicondyle.

Origin: L.

(05 Mar 2000)

epicondylus lateralis humerimedical dictionary
epicondylus lateralis ossis femorismedical dictionary

Preferred term: lateral epicondyle of femur

epicondylus medialis humerimedical dictionary
epicondylus medialis ossis femorismedical dictionary

Preferred term: medial epicondyle of femur

epi-coprostanolmedical dictionary

5b-Cholestan-3a-ol. For structure of cholestane, see steroids.

Synonyms: epi-coprosterol.

(05 Mar 2000)

epi-coprosterolmedical dictionary

Preferred term: epi-coprostanol

<anatomy> A ventral cartilaginous or bony element of the coracoid in the shoulder girdle of some vertebrates.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + coracoid.

(01 Mar 1998)

<botany> Of buds, shoots or flowers, borne on the old wood of trees (applied especially to shoots arising from dormant buds after injury or fire).

(09 Oct 1997)

<botany> On top of the bark, i.e. Outside the bark.

(09 Oct 1997)

<plant biology> The first shoot of a plant embryo or seedling, above the point of insertion of the cotyledon. Can be relatively long in some etiolated seedlings.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

epi-coprosterol, epicoracoid, epicormic, epicortical < Prev | Next > epicranial, epicranial aponeurosis

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<anatomy> Pertaining to the epicranium; as epicranial muscles.

(01 Mar 1998)

epicoracoid, epicormic, epicortical, epicotyl < Prev | Next > epicranial aponeurosis, epicranial muscle

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epicranial aponeurosismedical dictionary

The aponeurosis or intermediate tendon connecting the frontalis and occipitalis muscles to form the epicranius.

Synonyms: aponeurosis epicranialis, galea aponeurotica, galea.

(05 Mar 2000)

epicormic, epicortical, epicotyl, epicranial < Prev | Next > epicranial muscle, epicranium, epicranius muscle

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epicranial musclemedical dictionary

Preferred term: epicranius muscle

epicortical, epicotyl, epicranial, epicranial aponeurosis < Prev | Next > epicranium, epicranius muscle, epicrisis

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1. <anatomy> The upper and superficial part of the head, including the scalp, muscles, etc.

2. <entomology> The dorsal wall of the head of insects.

Origin: NL. See Epi-, and Cranium.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epicranius musclemedical dictionary

<anatomy> Composed of the epicranial aponeurosis and the muscles inserting into it, i.e., the occipitofrontalis musculus and temporoparietalis musculus.

Synonyms: musculus epicranius, epicranial muscle, scalp muscle.

(05 Mar 2000)

A secondary crisis; a crisis terminating a recrudescence of morbid symptoms following a primary crisis.

(05 Mar 2000)

That aspect of somatic sensation which permits the discrimination and the topographical localization of the finer degrees of touch and temperature stimuli.

Compare: protopathic.

Origin: G. Epikritikos, adjudicatory, fr. Epi, on, + krino, to separate, judge

(05 Mar 2000)

epicritic sensibilitymedical dictionary

Preferred term: epicritic

epicranium, epicranius muscle, epicrisis, epicritic < Prev | Next > epictetain, epicycle, epicycloid

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Pertaining to Epictetus, the Roman Stoic philosopher, whose conception of life was to be passionless under whatever circumstances.

Origin: Gr, fr. Epictetus.

(01 Mar 1998)

epicranius muscle, epicrisis, epicritic, epicritic sensibility < Prev | Next > epicycle, epicycloid, epicystitis

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1. A circle, whose center moves round in the circumference of a greater circle; or a small circle, whose center, being fixed in the deferent of a planet, is carried along with the deferent, and yet, by its own peculiar motion, carries the body of the planet fastened to it round its proper center. "The schoolmen were like astronomers which did feign eccentries, and epicycles, and such engines of orbs." (Bacon)

2. <mechanics> A circle which rolls on the circumference of another circle, either externally or internally.

Origin: L. Epicyclus, Gr.; upon + circle. See Cycle.

(01 Mar 1998)

epicrisis, epicritic, epicritic sensibility, epictetain < Prev | Next > epicycloid, epicystitis, epicyte

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<geometry> A curve traced by a point in the circumference of a circle which rolls on the convex side of a fixed circle.

Any point rigidly connected with the rolling circle, but not in its circumference, traces a curve called an epitrochoid. The curve traced by a point in the circumference of the rolling circle when it rolls on the concave side of a fixed circle is called a hypocycloid; the curve traced by a point rigidly connected with the rolling circle in this case, but not its circumference, is called a hypotrochoid. All the curves mentioned above belong to the class class called roulettes or trochoids. See Trochoid.

Origin: Epicycle: cf. F. Epicycloide.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Inflammation of the cellular tissue around the bladder.

Origin: epi-+ G. Kystis, bladder, + -itis, inflammation

(05 Mar 2000)

epicritic sensibility, epictetain, epicycle, epicycloid < Prev | Next > epicyte, epidemic, epidemical

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A cell membrane, especially of protozoa; the external layer of cytoplasm in gregarines.

Origin: epi-+ G. Kytos, cell

(05 Mar 2000)

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<epidemiology> Occurring suddenly in numbers clearly in excess of normal expectancy, said especially of infectious diseases but applied also to any disease, injury or other health related event occurring in such outbreaks.

Compare: endemic, sporadic.

Origin: Gr. Epidemios = prevalent

(13 Nov 1997)

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1. <epidemiology> Common to, or affecting at the same time, a large number in a community; applied to a disease which, spreading widely, attacks many persons at the same time; as, an epidemic disease; an epidemic catarrh, fever, etc. See Endemic.

2. Spreading widely, or generally prevailing; affecting great numbers, as an epidemic does; as, epidemic rage; an epidemic evil. "It was the epidemical sin of the nation." (Bp. Burnet)

Origin: L. Epidemus, Gr, among the people, epidemic; in + people: cf. F. Epidemique. Cf. Demagogue.

(01 Mar 1998)

epidemic benign dry pleurisymedical dictionary

Preferred term: epidemic pleurodynia

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epidemic cerebrospinal meningitismedical dictionary

Preferred term: meningococcal meningitis

epidemic curvemedical dictionary

A graph in which the number of new cases of a disease is plotted against an interval of time to describe a specific epidemic or outbreak.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic diaphragmatic pleurisymedical dictionary

Preferred term: epidemic pleurodynia

epidemic diseasemedical dictionary

Marked increase in prevalence of a disease in a specific population or area, usually with an environmental cause, such as an infectious or toxic agent.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic dropsymedical dictionary

A disease causing occasional epidemics in India and Mauritius; marked by oedema, anaemia, eruptive angiomatosis, and mild fever; may be associated with nutritional deficiency.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic encephalitismedical dictionary

A viral encephalitis occurring epidemically, such as in Japanese B encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and lethargic encephalitis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic exanthemamedical dictionary

Preferred term: epidemic polyarthritis

epidemic fadeoutmedical dictionary

<epidemiology> Parasite extinction occurring because numbers are so low immediately following an epidemic that it is possible for small stochastic fluctuations to remove all parasites. Contrast endemic fadeout.

(05 Dec 1998)

epidemic gangrenous proctitismedical dictionary

A generally fatal disease affecting chiefly children in the tropics, characterised by gangrenous ulceration of the rectum and anus, accompanied by frequent watery stools and tenesmus.

Synonyms: bicho, caribi, Indian sickness.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic gastroenteritis virusmedical dictionary

<virus>

<virology> A RNA virus, about 27 nm in diameter, which has not been cultured in vitro; it is the cause of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis; at least five antigenically distinct serotypes have been recognised, including the Norwalk agent. These viruses are probably classified with the Caliciviruses in the family Caliciviridae.

Synonyms: gastroenteritis virus type A.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic haemoglobinuriamedical dictionary

The presence of haemoglobin, or of pigments derived from it, in the urine of young infants, attended with cyanosis, jaundice, and other conditions; may be due to secondary methaemoglobinaemia; also called Winckel's disease.

American spelling: epidemic hemoglobinuria

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic haemorrhagic fevermedical dictionary

A condition characterised by acute onset of headache, chills and high fever, sweating, thirst, photophobia, coryza, cough, myalgia, arthralgia, and abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting; this phase lasts from three to six days and is followed by capillary and renal interstitial haemorrhages, oedema, oliguria, azotaemia, and shock; most varieties are caused by arboviruses (togaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses), and are rodent-borne.

Synonyms: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Songo fever.

American spelling: epidemic hemorrhagic fever

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic hepatitismedical dictionary

Preferred term: viral hepatitis type A

epidemic hiccupmedical dictionary

A persistent hiccup occurring as a complication of influenza.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic hysteriamedical dictionary

Preferred term: mass hysteria

The state of prevailing disease in epidemic form.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epidemic keratoconjunctivitismedical dictionary

Follicular conjunctivitis followed by subepithelial corneal infiltrates; often caused by adenovirus type 8, less commonly by other types.

Synonyms: virus keratoconjunctivitis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic keratoconjunctivitis virusmedical dictionary

<virus>

<virology> An adenovirus (type 8) causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, especially among shipyard workers, and also associated with outbreaks of swimming pool conjunctivitis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic myalgiamedical dictionary

<symptom>

Preferred term: epidemic pleurodynia

epidemic myalgia virusmedical dictionary

<virus>

Preferred term: epidemic pleurodynia virus

epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitismedical dictionary

Preferred term: epidemic neuromyasthenia

epidemic myalgic encephalomyelopathymedical dictionary

A disease superficially resembling poliomyelitis, characterised by diffuse involvement of the nervous system associated with myalgia.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic myositismedical dictionary

Preferred term: epidemic pleurodynia

epidemic nauseamedical dictionary

Preferred term: epidemic vomiting

epidemic neuromyastheniamedical dictionary

An epidemic disease characterised by stiffness of the neck and back, headache, diarrhoea, fever, and localised muscular weakness; restricted almost exclusively to adults, affecting women more than men; probably viral in origin.

Synonyms: Akureyri disease, benign myalgic encephalomyelitis, epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis, Iceland disease.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritismedical dictionary

An epidemic, highly communicable but rather mild disease of sudden onset, caused by the epidemic gastroenteritis virus (especially Norwalk agent), with an incubation period of 16 to 48 hours and a duration of 1 to 2 days, which affects all age groups; infection is associated with some fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and headache, one or another of which may be predominant.

Synonyms: acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic parotiditismedical dictionary

An acute infectious and contagious disease caused by a Paramyxovirus and characterised by fever, inflammation and swelling of the parotid gland, sometimes of other salivary glands, and occasionally by inflammation of the testis, ovary, pancreas, or meninges.

Synonyms: mumps.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic parotitis virusmedical dictionary

<virus>

Preferred term: mumps virus

epidemic pleurodyniamedical dictionary
epidemic pleurodynia virusmedical dictionary
epidemic polyarthritismedical dictionary

A mild febrile illness of humans in Australia characterised by polyarthralgia and rash, caused by the Ross River virus, a member of the family Togaviridae, and transmitted by mosquitoes.

Synonyms: epidemic exanthema, Murray Valley rash, Ross River fever.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic roseolamedical dictionary

Preferred term: rubella

epidemic stomatitismedical dictionary

Contagious mouth infection, usually due to Group A Coxsackievirus.

See: herpangina.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemic tetanymedical dictionary

Preferred term: rheumatic tetany

epidemic transient diaphragmatic spasmmedical dictionary

Preferred term: epidemic pleurodynia

epidemic tremormedical dictionary
epidemic typhusmedical dictionary

<infectious disease> A severe acute disease with prolonged high fever up to 40 C (104 F), intractable headache, and a pink-to-red raised rash. The cause is a microorganism called Rickettsia prowazekii.

It is found worldwide and is transmitted by lice. The lice become infected on typhus patients and transmit illness to other people. The mortality increases with age and over half of untreated persons age 50 or more die.

Also called European, classic, or louse-borne typhus and jail fever.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidemic vertigomedical dictionary

Preferred term: vestibular neuronitis

epidemic vomitingmedical dictionary

Virus caused by Norwalk virus, a 27 nm RNA virus in the family Caliciviridae frequently occurring in a group of people (e.g., in a school or small community) suddenly and without prodromal illness or malaise, is intense while it lasts, but ceases abruptly after a few hours or a day or so; symptoms are headache, abdominal pain, giddiness, and diarrhoea in most of the cases, and extreme prostration in about 75%.

Synonyms: epidemic nausea.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epidemiographymedical dictionary

<medicine> A treatise upon, or history of, epidemic diseases.

Origin: Epidemy.

(01 Mar 1998)

epidemiologicalmedical dictionary

Relating to or involving epidemiology.

(11 Mar 2008)

epidemiological distributionmedical dictionary

Preferred term: histogram

epidemiological geneticsmedical dictionary

The study of genetics as a phenomenon of defined populations by the criteria, methods, and objectives of epidemiology rather than of population genetics.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidemiologic factorsmedical dictionary

Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidemiologic measurementsmedical dictionary

<epidemiology> Statistical calculations on the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions in defined populations.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidemiologic research designmedical dictionary

The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidemiologic studiesmedical dictionary

Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesised causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are case-control studies, cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidemiologic study characteristicsmedical dictionary

Types and formulations of studies used in epidemiological and clinical research.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidemiologistmedical dictionary

<specialist>

A person skilled in epidemiology.

(01 Mar 1998)

epidemiologymedical dictionary

<study>

The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations and the control of health problems, the study of epidemic disease.

(27 Sep 1997)

epidemiology, classicalmedical dictionary

The study of populations in order to determine the frequency and distribution of disease and measure risks.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidemiology, clinicalmedical dictionary

Epidemiology focused specifically upon patients.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidemiology, molecularmedical dictionary

The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.

(12 Dec 1998)

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<medicine> An epidemic disease.

Origin: Gr, fr., cf. F. Epidemie. See Epidemic.

(01 Mar 1998)

<anatomy> The epidermis.

Origin: Cf. F. Epiderme. See Epidermis.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Preferred term: epidermis

Pertaining to or resembling epidermis. Also called epidermic or epidermoid.

(11 Mar 2008)

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epidermal cellmedical dictionary

1. Cell of epidermis in animals.

2. Plant cell on the surface of a leaf or other young plant tissue, where bark is absent. The exposed surface is covered with a layer of cutin.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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epidermal cystmedical dictionary

Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

(12 Dec 1998)

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epidermal growth factormedical dictionary

<growth factor>

A mitogenic polypeptide initially isolated from male mouse submaxillary gland.

The name refers to the early bioassay, but epidermal growth factor is active on a variety of cell types, especially but not exclusively epithelial. Human equivalent originally named urogastrone owing to its hormone activity.

Acronym: EGF

(11 Mar 2008)

epidermal growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinasemedical dictionary

<enzyme>

<cell biology> The catalytic protein-tyrosine kinase domain found on the cytoplasmic beta-portion of epidermal growth factor receptor.

Registry number: EC 2.7.1.-

(12 Dec 1998)

epidermal growth factor-urogastronemedical dictionary

<chemical>

Single chain, nonhelical, acidic polypeptides of about 52 amino acids found in most mammals. Epidermal growth factor and urogastrone are not identical but seem to share biological acivities. They promote growth of, and cell proliferation in, certain tissues, especially epidermal structures and inhibit acid secretion by the stomach. They have been used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.

Chemical name: Epidermal growth factor

(12 Dec 1998)

epidermalizationmedical dictionary

Preferred term: squamous metaplasia

epidermal necrolysis, toxicmedical dictionary

An exfoliative disease of skin seen primarily in adults and characterised by flaccid bullae and spreading erythema so that the skin has the appearance of being scalded. It results primarily from a toxic reaction to various drugs, but occasionally occurs as a result of infection, neoplastic conditions, or other exposure.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidermal ridge countmedical dictionary

An index of the frequency of sweat pores on the fingertips by enumeration along a set of arbitrarily defined lines; a classic example of a galtonian trait determined almost exclusively by genetic factors.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidermal ridgesmedical dictionary

Ridges of the epidermis of the palms and soles, where the sweat pores open.

Synonyms: cristae cutis, skin ridges.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidermatoidmedical dictionary

<anatomy>

See: epidermoid.

Origin: Gr. Upon +, skin. Cf. Epidermoid.

(01 Mar 1998)

epidermatoplastymedical dictionary

<procedure>

Rarely used term for skin grafting by means of strips or small patches of epidermis with the underlying outer layer of the corium.

Origin: epidermis + G. Plastos, formed

(05 Mar 2000)

Epidermal; connected with the skin or the bark.

<medicine> Epidermic administration of medicine, the application of medicine to the skin by friction.

Origin: Cf. F. Epidermique.

(01 Mar 1998)

epidermic cellmedical dictionary

One of the cell's of the epidermis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidermic-dermic nevusmedical dictionary

Preferred term: junction nevus

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epidermic graftmedical dictionary

A graft supposed to contain only epidermis.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epidermidosismedical dictionary

Preferred term: epidermosis

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1. <dermatology> The basal layer of the mammalian epidermis contains cells that undergo repeated divisions. The cells outwards from a particular basal cell are often derived from this cell or a nearby one so that columns of cells exist running outwards from the stem cell in the basal layer from which they were derived. Such columns of cells are referred to as proliferative units.

2. <biology> Outer epithelial layer of a plant or animal. May be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (as for example the cuticle of arthropods) or a complex stratified squamous epithelium, as in the case of many vertebrate species.

(11 Mar 2008)

Inflammation of the epidermis or superficial layers of the skin.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidermitis, exudative, of swinemedical dictionary

An acute generalised dermatitis of pigs which occurs from 5 to 35 days of age, characterised by sudden onset, with morbidity of 10 to 90% and mortality of 5 to 90%. The lesions are caused by staphylococcus hyos but the bacterial agent is unable to penetrate the intact skin. Abrasions on the feet and legs or lacerations on the body frequently precede infection. In acute cases, a vesicular-type virus may be the predisposing factor. The causative organism is inhibited by most antibiotics.

(12 Dec 1998)

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epidermizationmedical dictionary

1. Rarely used term for skin grafting.

2. Rarely used term for the covering of an area with epidermis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidermodysplasiamedical dictionary

Faulty growth or development of the epidermis.

Origin: epidermis + G. Dys-, bad, + plasis, a molding

(05 Mar 2000)

epidermodysplasia verruciformismedical dictionary

An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papilloma viruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.

(12 Dec 1998)

<anatomy> Like epidermis; pertaining to the epidermis.

Origin: Cf. F. Epidermoide.

(01 Mar 1998)

epidermoid cancermedical dictionary

Preferred term: epidermoid carcinoma

epidermoid carcinomamedical dictionary

A type of lung cancer in which the cells are flat and look like fish scales. Also called squamous cell carcinoma.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidermoid cystmedical dictionary

A closed sac (sebaceous gland) within the tissue containing oily or fatty semi-solid material. These cysts are found most commonly on the genitalia, vulva or labia. Features include a nontender, small lump in the skin. Sebaceous cysts which turn red or tender may require treatment with oral antibiotics. Warm wet compresses may help the cyst expel some of its contents. Surgical excision of the cyst may be necessary to prevent recurrence.

(27 Sep 1997)

epidermoid inclusion cystmedical dictionary

<radiology> Well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion showing a thin cortical margin that may not be visible in its entirety, frequently in the terminal phalanx, history of penetrating trauma is often elicited Differential diagnosis: ABC, enchondroma

(12 Dec 1998)

epidermolysismedical dictionary

A condition in which the epidermis is loosely attached to the corium, readily exfoliating or forming blisters.

Origin: epidermis + G. Lysis, loosening

(05 Mar 2000)

epidermolysis bullosamedical dictionary

This represents a group of rare inherited disorders in which blistering of the skin occurs in response to skin trauma. Large fluid-filled blisters can occur in response to injury, skin rubbing, chafing or even increases in room temperature. Secondary bacterial infection of the blisters is common. Complications include oesophageal stricture, infections, loss of function of hands and feet and malnutrition. The dermatologist is the expert in the evaluation and treatment of this disorder.

(27 Sep 1997)

epidermolysis bullosa acquisitamedical dictionary

Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterised by trauma-induced, subepidermal blistering with no family history of the disease. Direct immunofluorescence shows IgG deposited at the dermo-epidermal junction.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidermolysis bullosa dystrophicamedical dictionary

Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterised by atrophy of blistered areas, severe scarring, and nail changes. It is most often present at birth or in early infancy and occurs in both autosomal dominant and recessive forms.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidermolysis bullosa, junctionalmedical dictionary

Form of epidermolysis bullosa having onset at birth or during the neonatal period and transmitted through autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterised by generalised blister formation, extensive denudation, and separation and cleavage of the basal cell plasma membranes from the basement membrane.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidermolysis bullosa lethalismedical dictionary

Epidermolysis bullosa in which the bullae are persistent, nonhealing, and often present in the oral mucosa and trachea, but not on the palms and soles, leading to death.

Synonyms: epidermolysis bullosa, junctional type, Herlitz syndrome.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidermolysis bullosa simplexmedical dictionary

This represents a group of rare inherited disorders in which blistering of the skin occurs in response to skin trauma. Large fluid-filled blisters can occur in response to injury, skin rubbing, chafing or even increases in room temperature. Secondary bacterial infection of the blisters is common. Complications include oesophageal stricture, infections, loss of function of hands and feet and malnutrition. The dermatologist is the expert in the evaluation and treatment of this disorder.

(27 Sep 1997)

epidermolytic hyperkeratosismedical dictionary
epidermophytonmedical dictionary

A deuteromycetous fungal genus which grows in the epidermis and is the cause of tinea.

(12 Dec 1998)

<physiology> An alternative term for keratin.

See: Epidermis.

(01 Mar 1998)

A skin disease affecting only the epidermis.

Synonyms: epidermidosis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidermotropismmedical dictionary

Movement towards the epidermis, as in the migration of T lymphocytes into the epidermis in mycosis fungoides.

Origin: epidermis + G. Trope, a turning

(05 Mar 2000)

An obsolete term for dehiscence of the pigmentary layer of the iris.

Origin: epi-+ G. Dialysis, a separation

(05 Mar 2000)

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<instrument>

A projector by which images are reflected by a mirror through a lens, or lenses, onto a screen, using reflected light for opaque objects and transmitted light for translucent or transparent ones.

Synonyms: overhead projector.

Origin: epi-+ G. Dia, through, + skopeo, to view

(05 Mar 2000)

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Relating to the epididymis.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epididymectomymedical dictionary

<procedure>

<surgery> Operative removal of the epididymis.

Origin: epididymis + G. Ektome, excision

(05 Mar 2000)

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Convoluted tubule connecting the vas efferens, that comes from the seminiferous tubules of the mammalian testis, to the vas deferens. Maturation and storage of sperm occur in the epididymis.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

epididymitismedical dictionary

<pathology> Inflammation of the epididymis, usually the result of a bacterial infection.

Symptoms include testicular pain and swelling.

(27 Sep 1997)

epididymo-orchitismedical dictionary

Simultaneous inflammation of both epididymis and testis.

Origin: epididymis + G. Orchis, testis

(05 Mar 2000)

epididymoplastymedical dictionary

<procedure>

Surgical repair of the epididymis.

Origin: epididymis + G. Plastos, formed

(05 Mar 2000)

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epididymotomymedical dictionary

<procedure>

<surgery> Incision into the epididymis, as in preparation for epididymovasostomy or for drainage of purulent material.

Origin: epididymis + G. Tome, a cutting

(05 Mar 2000)

epididymovasectomymedical dictionary

<procedure>

<surgery> Surgical removal of the epididymis and vas deferens, usually proximal to its entry into the inguinal canal.

Origin: epididymis + vasectomy

(05 Mar 2000)

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epididymovasostomymedical dictionary

<procedure>

<surgery> Surgical anastomosis of the vas deferens to the epididymis.

Origin: epididymis + vasostomy

(05 Mar 2000)

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<chemical>

A mineral, commonly of a yellowish green (pistachio) colour, occurring granular, massive, columnar, and in monoclinic crystals. It is a silicate of alumina, lime, and oxide of iron, or manganese.

The Epidote group includes ordinary epidote, zoisite or lime epidote, piedmontite or manganese epidote, allanite or serium epidote.

Origin: Gr. To give besides; over + to give: cf. F. Epidote. So named from the enlargement of the base of the primary, in some of the secondary forms.

(01 Mar 1998)

<anatomy> Situated within the spinal canal, on or outside the dura mater (tough membrane surrounding the spinal cord), synonyms are extradural and peridural.

(16 Dec 1997)

epidural abscessmedical dictionary

This is a disorder which is characterised by inflammation and a collection of infected material (pus) in the area between the skull bone and the covering of the brain (meninges). Infection is usually caused by bacteria (Staphylococcus), but may be secondary to a fungal or viral infection. Epidural abscess can occur secondary to a chronic ear or sinus infection, penetrating head injury or mastoiditis. Fever, headache and neurologic symptoms are common.

(27 Sep 1997)

epidural anaesthesiamedical dictionary

Regional anaesthesia produced by injection of local anaesthetic solution into the peridural space.

Synonyms: peridural anaesthesia.

American spelling: epidural anesthesia

(05 Mar 2000)

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epidural anaestheticmedical dictionary

An anaesthetic injected into the epidural space surrounding the fluid-filled sac (the dura) around the spine which partially numbs the abdomen and legs.

American spelling: epidural anesthetic

(12 Dec 1998)

epidural blockmedical dictionary

An obstruction in the epidural space; used inaccurately to refer to epidural anaesthesia.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidural cavitymedical dictionary

The space between the walls of the vertebral canal and the dura mater of the spinal cord.

Synonyms: cavum epidurale, epidural space.

(05 Mar 2000)

epidural haematomamedical dictionary

A serious type of head injury that is characterised by a collection of blood that lies outside of the dura mater (between the dura mater and the skull). Occurs secondary to major head trauma. The most common location on the skull for this type of injury is over the temple. The temporal bone when fractured can cause a tearing of an epidural blood artery. The progressive accumulation of blood (haematoma) in the epidural space leads to the development of neurologic symptoms and coma.

Treatment includes surgical evacuation of the haematoma.

American spelling: epidural hematoma

(27 Sep 1997)

epidural meningitismedical dictionary

Preferred term: pachymeningitis externa

epidural neoplasmsmedical dictionary

Neoplasms located in the epidural space, at or above the dura mater of the spinal cord.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidural spacemedical dictionary

Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.

(12 Dec 1998)

epidurographymedical dictionary

Radiographic visualization of the epidural space following the regional instillation of a radiopaque contrast medium.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Preferred term: estriol

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Upon the surface of a fascia, denoting a method of injecting drugs in which the solution is put on the fascia lata instead of injected into the substance of the muscle.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Animals living on the surface of the substrate.

(09 Oct 1997)

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<botany> An American genus of plants, containing but a single species (E. Repens), the trailing arbutus.

Origin: NL, fr. Gr. Upon + earth.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<botany> Growing on, or close to, the ground.

Origin: Gr. See Epigaea, and cf. Epigee.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epigastralgiamedical dictionary

<symptom>

Pain in the epigastrium.

(11 Mar 2008)

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<anatomy>

Preferred term: epigastric

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<anatomy> Pertaining to the epigastrium.

(11 Mar 2008)

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epigastric anglemedical dictionary

<anatomy> The angle formed by the xiphoid process with the body of the sternum.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epigastric arteriesmedical dictionary
epigastric foldmedical dictionary

<anatomy>

Preferred term: lateral umbilical fold

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epigastric fossamedical dictionary

<anatomy> The slight depression in the midline just inferior to the xiphoid process of the sternum.

Synonyms: fossa epigastrica, pit of stomach, scrobiculus cordis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epigastric herniamedical dictionary

<anatomy>

Hernia through the linea alba above the navel.

(05 Mar 2000)

epigastric reflexmedical dictionary

<neurology>

A contraction of the upper portion of the rectus abdominis muscle when the skin of the epigastrium above is scratched.

Synonyms: supraumbilical reflex.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epigastric regionmedical dictionary

<anatomy> The region of the abdomen located between the costal margins and the subcostal plane.

Synonyms: epigastrium, regio epigastrica.

(05 Mar 2000)

epigastric veinsmedical dictionary
epigastric voicemedical dictionary

<psychiatry>

The delusion of a voice proceeding from the epigastrium.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<anatomy> The upper central region of the abdomen between the costal margins and a line drawn horizontally across the lowest costal margin.

(27 Sep 1997)

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<embryology>

Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller parasite is attached to the larger autosite in the epigastric region.

See: conjoined twins.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epigastrocelemedical dictionary

<anatomy>

An obsolete term for a hernia in the epigastric region.

Origin: epigastrium + G. Kele, hernia

(05 Mar 2000)

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<botany>

Of germination, having the cotyledon emerging from the seed coat and becoming photosynthetic.

Compare: hypogeal.

(09 Oct 1997)

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1. <chemistry> Foreign; unnatural; unusual; said of forms of crystals not natural to the substances in which they are found.

2. <geology> Formed originating on the surface of the earth; opposed to hypogene; as, epigene rocks.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + Gr. To be born, grow.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<biology> The theory that development is a process of gradual increase in complexity as opposed to the preformationist view that supposed that mere increase in size was sufficient to produce adult from embryo.

(07 May 1998)

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<specialist>

One who believes in, or advocates the theory of, epigenesis.

(07 May 1998)

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<biology> Of or pertaining to the epigenesis; produced according to the theory of epigenesis.

Describes something which influences the behaviour of a cell without directly affecting its DNA or other genetic machinery, such as an environmental effect.

(07 May 1998)

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epigenetic changemedical dictionary

<biology> Any changes in an organism brought about by alterations in the action of genes are called epigenetic changes.

Epigenetic transformation refers to those processes which cause normal cells to become tumour cells without the occurrence of any mutations.

(07 May 1998)

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<study>

The study of mechanisms involved in the production of phenotypic complexity in morphogenesis.

According to the epigenetic view of differentiation, the cell makes a series of choices (some of which may have no obvious phonotypic expression and are spoken of as determination events) that lead to the eventual differentiated state. Thus, selective gene repression or derepression at an early stage in differentiation will have a wide ranging consequence in restricting the possible fate of the cell.

(07 May 1998)

<anatomy> Pertaining to, or connected with, the epiglottis.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epiglottic cartilagemedical dictionary

<anatomy>

A thin lamina of elastic cartilage forming the central portion of the epiglottis.

Synonyms: cartilago epiglottica.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epiglottic foldsmedical dictionary

<anatomy>

One of the three folds of mucous membrane passing between the tongue and the epiglottis, lateral glossoepiglottic fold on either side, and median glossoepiglottic fold centrally.

Synonyms: plicae epiglottica.

(05 Mar 2000)

epiglottic tuberclemedical dictionary

<anatomy>

A convexity at the lower part of the epiglottis over the upper part of the thyroepiglottic ligament.

Synonyms: tuberculum epiglotticum, cushion of epiglottis.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epiglottic valleculamedical dictionary

<anatomy>

A depression immediately posterior to the root of the tongue between the median and lateral glossoepiglottic folds on either side.

Synonyms: vallecula epiglottica.

(05 Mar 2000)

epiglottideanmedical dictionary

<anatomy> Same as Epiglottic.

(01 Mar 1998)

epiglottidectomymedical dictionary

<procedure>

<surgery> Excision of the epiglottis.

Origin: epiglottis + G. Ektome, excision

(05 Mar 2000)

epiglottiditismedical dictionary

Preferred term: epiglottitis

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<anatomy> A cartilaginous lidlike appendage which closes the glottis while food or drink is passing while food or drink is passing through the pharynx.

Origin: NL, fr. Gr.; upon +, tongue. See Glottis.

(01 Mar 1998)

epiglottitismedical dictionary

<pathology> Inflammation of the epiglottis due to a bacterial (haemophilus influenza) infection.

This serious, life-threatening infection is more common in children 2 to 7 years of age. The illness is typically of abrupt onset with stridor, sore throat, breathing difficulty, drooling and a high fever. A whispery diminished voice is also common.

Treatment involves airway protection and intravenous antibiotics.

(07 May 1998)

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<protein>

Very extensively glycosylated transmembrane glycoprotein found in TA3 Ha mouse mammary carcinoma cells and that may mask histocompatibility antigens. Functionally analogous to episialin but there is no sequence homology in the protein.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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<zoology> Hook-billed; having the upper mandible longer than the lower.

Origin: Epi- + Gr. The jaw.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<embryology>

Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller, incomplete parasite is attached to the larger autosite at the lower jaw.

See: conjoined twins.

Origin: epi-+ G. Gnathos, jaw

(05 Mar 2000)

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1. Any inscription set upon a building; especially, one which has to do with the building itself, its founding or dedication.

2. A citation from some author, or a sentence framed for the purpose, placed at the beginning of a work or of its separate divisions; a motto.

Origin: Gr, fr., cf. F. Epigraphe. See Epigram.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Preferred term: epigraphical

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epigraphicalmedical dictionary

Of or pertaining to epigraphs or to epigraphy; as, an epigraphic style; epigraphical works or studies.

(01 Mar 1998)

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The science or study of epigraphs.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<specialist>

A student of, or one versed in, epigraphy.

(01 Mar 1998)

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The science of inscriptions; the art of engraving inscriptions or of deciphering them.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<botany>

Of floral parts (especially stamens), attached above the level of insertion of the ovary, and arising from tissue that is fused to the ovary wall.

Compare: hypogynous, perigynous.

(09 Oct 1997)

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<anatomy> A segment next above the ceratohyal in the hyoidean arch.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + the Greek letter.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epihyal bonemedical dictionary

An ossified stylomastoid ligament.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epihyal ligamentmedical dictionary

<anatomy>

Preferred term: stylohyoid ligament

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Upon the hyoid bone; denoting certain accessory thyroid glands lying above the geniohyoid muscle.

(05 Mar 2000)

epikeratophakiamedical dictionary

A procedure that modifies the refractive error of the lens by the transplantation of a donor cornea to the anterior surface of the patient's cornea. The basic indication for epikeratophakia is the incapability of correcting refractive errors with conservative methods, such as glasses, contact lenses, or intraocular lenses.

(12 Dec 1998)

epikeratophakic keratoplastymedical dictionary

<procedure>

Preferred term: epikeratophakia

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epikeratoprosthesismedical dictionary

A contact lens attached to the corneal stroma to replace the epithelium.

Origin: epi-+ G. Keras, horn, + prosthesis, an addition

(05 Mar 2000)

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Upon or above a basement membrane.

Origin: epi-+ L. Lamella, dim. Of lamina, a thin metal plate

(05 Mar 2000)

To extract a hair; to remove the hair from a part by forcible extraction, electrolysis, or loosening at the root by chemical means.

Compare: depilate.

Origin: L. E, out, + pilus, a hair

(05 Mar 2000)

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The act or result of removing hair.

Synonyms: depilation.

(05 Mar 2000)

1. Having the property of removing hair; relating to epilation.

Synonyms: depilatory, psilotic.

See: decalvant.

Synonyms: depilatory.

(05 Mar 2000)

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The connective tissue sheath of nerve fibres near their termination.

Origin: epi-lemma, husk

(05 Mar 2000)

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epilemmal endingmedical dictionary

A nerve ending in close relation to the outer surface of the sarcolemma.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<tumour>

A tumour resulting from hyperplasia of tissue derived from the true epiblast.

Origin: epi-+ G. Lepis, rind, + -oma, tumour

(05 Mar 2000)

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Preferred term: epilepsy

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epilepsia partialis continuamedical dictionary

Focal motor status epilepticus characterised by high fever, delirium, localised muscular spasms and generalised convulsion, then clonic twitching of one group of muscles at regular intervals (seconds apart) lasting for hours or months, remaining localised. These continue throughout sleep, possibly at a reduced rate.

(12 Dec 1998)

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<disease>

<neurology> The paroxysmal transient disturbances of brain function that may be manifested as episodic impairment or loss of consciousness, abnormal motor phenomena, psychic or sensory disturbances or perturbation of the autonomic nervous system.

Symptoms are due to paroxysmal disturbance of the electrical activity of the brain. On the basis of origin, epilepsy is idiopathic (cryptogenic, essential, genetic) or symptomatic (acquired, organic). On the basis of clinical and electroencephalographic phenomenon, four subdivisions are recognised:

1. Grand mal epilepsy (major epilepsy, haut mal epilepsy) subgroups: generalised, focal (localised), jacksonian (rolandic)

2. Petit mal epilepsy

3. Psychomotor epilepsy (temporal lobe epilepsy, psychic, psychic equivalent or variant) subgroups: psychomotor proper (tonic with adversive or torsion movements or masticatory phenomena), automatic (with amnesia) and sensory (hallucinations or dream states or dj. Vu)

4. Autonomic epilepsy (diencephalic), with flushing, pallor, tachycardia, hypertension, perspiration or other visceral symptoms.

Synonyms: epilepsia.

Origin: Gr. Epilepsia = seizure

(14 May 1997)

epilepsy, absencemedical dictionary

Epileptic seizures that consist of a sudden cessation of ongoing conscious activity without convulsive muscular activity or loss of postural control. These seizures may be so brief as to be inapparent, lasting seconds and occasionally several minutes. Absence seizures usually begin in otherwise neurologically normal children and rarely appear for the first time in adults. The seizures may occur hundreds of times per day and go on for weeks or months before it is recognised that a child is having seizures.

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy, complex partialmedical dictionary

Epileptic seizures that are episodic changes in behaviour in which an individual loses conscious contact with the environment. The onset of such seizures involves any of a variety of auras: deja-vu, an unusual smell, a sudden intense emotional feeling, a sensory illusion such as micropsia (objects growing smaller) or macropsia (objects growing larger), or other sensory hallucination. There may be a cessation of activity with some minor motor activity such as lip smacking, walking aimlessly, or other automatisms. The seizures may also be accompanied by the unconscious performance of highly skilled activities such as driving a car. When the seizure ends, the individual is amnesic for events that took place during the seizure and may take minutes or hours to recover fully to consciousness.

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy, frontal lobemedical dictionary

Epileptic seizures arising from the frontal lobe characterised by simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalised seizures, or combinations of these. The seizures, which are short in duration, may occur several times a day, mostly during sleep. Affected individuals usually have prominent motor manifestations which are tonic or postural, complex gestational automatisms at the onset, and fall to the ground when the discharge is bilateral. Status epilepticus is a frequent complication.

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy, generalisedmedical dictionary

Epileptic seizures in which the first clinical changes indicate initial involvement of both hemispheres of the brain, as opposed to epileptic seizures involving a particular focal point of the brain (epilepsy, partial). Generalised seizures can be convulsive or non-convulsive. Consciousness may be impaired and this impairment may be the initial manifestation of the seizure. Motor manifestations, if present, are also bilateral.

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy, myoclonicmedical dictionary

A progressive encephalopathy characterised by myoclonic jerks (single or repetitive muscle contractions involving one body part or the entire body), mental retardation, and ataxia. The disease, an autosomal recessive form of epilepsy, occurs usually at puberty. The most significant pathological findings are lafora's inclusion bodies, which contain mucopolysaccharides.

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy, partialmedical dictionary

Epileptic seizures that originate at a specific location or focal point in the cortex of the brain and either remain localised or may generalise. These seizures occur without the loss of consciousness of the individual. The specific clinical symptoms depend on the area of the cortex involved.

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy, posttraumaticmedical dictionary

Epileptic seizures occurring as the result of trauma such as a gunshot wound or other injury to the brain.

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy, rolandicmedical dictionary

A benign, autosomal, dominant form of epilepsy occurring in children characterised clinically by arrest of speech, by muscular contractions of the side of the face and arm and electroencephalographically by high voltage spikes followed by slow waves in the rolandic area leads. Named for luigi rolando, an italian anatomist (1773-1831).

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy, temporal lobemedical dictionary

Epileptic seizures characterised by simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures, and secondary generalised seizures, or combinations of these. Seizures may present with autonomic and/or psychic symptoms and certain sensory phenomena such as olfactory and auditory. most common is an epigastric rising sensation. Some seizures may begin with motor arrest and continue with oro-alimentary automatisms (with other automatisms following). Attacks are followed by amnesia and recovery is gradual. Usually, there is a history of febrile seizures in the individual or a history of seizures in the family. Seizures occur in clusters, randomly, or at intervals.

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy, tonic-clonicmedical dictionary

Primary generalised epileptic seizures, starting without warning, characterised by loss of consciousness, tonic contraction of muscles, loss of postural control, and production of a cry by the forced expiration of air due to contraction of the respiratory muscles. The individual then falls to the floor and remains rigid for a few seconds, after which a series of rhythmic contractions occur in all four limbs. This clonic phase can last for a variable period, ending only upon muscle relaxation. Upon recovery, there is a gradual return to consciousness, disorientation, amnesia for the seizure, sometimes retrograde amnesia as well, headache, and drowsiness. The individual may not return to baseline functioning for days.

(12 Dec 1998)

epilepsy with grand mal seizures on awakeningmedical dictionary

Generalised epilepsy syndrome characterised by onset in the second decade of life, typically with generalised tonic-clonic seizures, of which most occur shortly after awakening (regardless of the time of day) and are exacerbated by sleep deprivation. There is a genetic predisposition and EEG shows one of several generalised patterns of interictal discharges; photosensitivity is common.

(05 Mar 2000)

epilepsy with myoclonic absencesmedical dictionary

A form of generalised epilepsy characterised by absence seizures, severe bilateral rhythmic clonic jerks often associated with tonic contraction, and an EEG 3 Hz spike and wave pattern. Age of onset is usually around seven years and males are more often affected.

(05 Mar 2000)

1. One affected with epilepsy.

2. A medicine for the cure of epilepsy.

(01 Mar 1998)

epileptic dementiamedical dictionary

Dementia occurring in an individual afflicted with epilepsy, and thought to be a result of prolonged seizures, the epileptogenic brain lesion, or antiepileptic drugs.

Hebephrenic dementia, dementia with hebephrenic symptoms.

(05 Mar 2000)

epileptic seizuremedical dictionary

A seizure that is caused by epilepsy.

(05 Mar 2000)

epileptiformmedical dictionary

Preferred term: epileptoid

epileptiform neuralgiamedical dictionary

<symptom>

Preferred term: trigeminal neuralgia

epileptogenicmedical dictionary

Causing epilepsy.

(05 Mar 2000)

epileptogenic zonemedical dictionary

A cortical region which on stimulation reproduces the patient's spontaneous seizure or aura.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epileptogenousmedical dictionary

<medicine> Producing epilepsy or epileptoid convulsions; applied to areas of the body or of the nervous system, stimulation of which produces convulsions.

Origin: Gr. Epileptic + -genous.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<medicine> Resembling epilepsy; as, epileptoid convulsions.

Origin: Gr.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<cell biology> Major glycoprotein of epidermal basement membrane, consisting of three disulphide bonded subunits of 170, 145 and 135 kD. Epiligrin is the major ligand for _3/_1 integrin, is particularly prominent in the lamina lucida of the skin and is absent in patients with lethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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Living on rocks or other stony matter.

(09 Oct 1997)

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1. Extended Programming In LOGic. PROLOG with several AND's having different time constraints.

["Epilog: A Language for Extended Programming in Logic", A. Porto in Implementations of Prolog, J.A. Campbell ed, Ellis Horwood 1984].

2. A data-driven PROLOG, with both AND parallelism and OR parallelism. ["EPILOG = PROLOG + Data Flow", M.J. Wise, SIGPLAN Noices 17:80-86 (1982)].

(03 Feb 2009)

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Synonyms: tuberous sclerosis.

Origin: term coined by Sherloc (1911)

(05 Mar 2000)

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<ornithology> A genus of highly ornate and brilliantly coloured birds of Australia, allied to the birds of Paradise.

Origin: NL, fr. Gr. Equipped for battle; for + battle.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epimandibularmedical dictionary

Upon the lower jaw.

Origin: epi-+ L. Mandibulum, mandible

(05 Mar 2000)

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Increasing steadily until an acme is reached, then declining; said of a fever.

Origin: G. Epakmastikos, coming to a height

(05 Mar 2000)

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epimastical fevermedical dictionary

A fever increasing steadily until its acme is reached, then declining by crisis or lysis.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epimastigotemedical dictionary

Term replacing "crithidial stage," to avoid confusion with the insect-parasitizing flagellates of the genus Crithidia. In the epimastigote stage the flagellum arises from the kinetoplast alongside the nucleus and emerges from the anterior end of the organism; an undulating membrane is present.

Origin: epi-+ G. Mastix, whip

(05 Mar 2000)

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<zoology> Pertaining to the epimera.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epimenorrhagiamedical dictionary

Prolonged and profuse menstruation occurring at any time, but most frequently at the beginning and end of menstrual life.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epimenorrhoeamedical dictionary

Too frequent menstruation, occurring at any time, but particularly at the beginning and end of menstrual life.

American spelling: epimenorrhea

(05 Mar 2000)

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<biochemistry> Diastereomeric monosaccharides that have opposite configurations of a hydroxyl group at only one position, for example D glucose and D mannose.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

<enzyme>

<cell biology> An enzyme that catalyses the reversible conversion of an epimer into its counterpart form.

(09 Oct 1997)

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epimerase deficiency galactosaemiamedical dictionary

An inborn error in metabolism in which there is a deficiency of uridine diphosphate galactose 4-epimerase; galactose 1-phosphate accumulates.

American spelling: epimerase deficiency galactosemia

(05 Mar 2000)

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<biology> One of the segments of the transverse axis, or the so called homonymous parts; as, for example, one of the several segments of the extremities in vertebrates, or one of the similar segments in plants, such as the segments of a segmented leaf.

Origin: Epi- + -mere.

(01 Mar 1998)

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The hooklike anchoring structure at the anterior end of a cephaline gregarine sporozoan; it is left embedded in tissues when the rest of the cephalont is freed in the lumen of the intestine of the invertebrate host.

Origin: epi-+ G. Meros, part

(05 Mar 2000)

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Origin: NL, fr. Gr. Upon + a part.

<zoology> In crustaceans: The part of the side of a somite external to the basal joint of each appendage.

In insects: The lateral piece behind the episternum.

Alternative forms: epimerum.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<chemical>

3-methoxy-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-16 alpha,17 alpha-diol. A synthetic steroid with oestrogenic activity.

Pharmacological action: oestrogens, synthetic.

Chemical name: Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-16,17-diol, 3-methoxy-, (16alpha,17alpha)-

(12 Dec 1998)

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epimicroscopemedical dictionary

<instrument>

A microscope with a condenser built around the objective; used for the investigation of opaque, or only slightly translucent, minute specimens.

Synonyms: opaque microscope.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epimorphosismedical dictionary

<cell biology> Pattern of regeneration in which proliferation precedes the development of a new part. Opposite of morphallaxis.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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epimyoepithelial islandsmedical dictionary

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epimysiotomymedical dictionary

<procedure>

<surgery> Incision of the sheath of a muscle.

Origin: epimysium + G. Tome, a cutting

(05 Mar 2000)

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The fibrous connective tissue envelope surrounding a skeletal muscle.

Synonyms: perimysium externum.

Origin: epi-+ G. Mys, muscle

(05 Mar 2000)

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<physiology> A term applied to that phase of vegetable growth in which an organ grows more rapidly on its upper than on its under surface. See Hyponastic.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + Gr. Pressed close.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<botany> Asymmetrical growth of a leaf or stem that causes curvature of the structure.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

<cell biology> Intermediate filament associated protein (44.5 kD monomer) associated with vimentin in nonneural cells.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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<drug>

A cardiac drug used for cardiac arrest from ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, asystole, or pulseless electrical activity; extreme hypotension; bradycardia and heart block.

Pharmacologic action: 1. Beneficial mainly due to alpha stimulation - increases systemic vascular resistance and improves coronary and cerebral blood flow. 2. Value of beta stimulation is controversial - increases myocardial electrical activity and strength of contraction, but also increases myocardial oxygen requirements and automaticity.

Dose: Cardiac arrest: Recommended: 1 mg IV push every 3-5 min Intermediate: 2-5 mg IV push every 3-5 min Escalating: 1 mg, 3 mg, 5 mg IV push 3 min apart High: 0.1 mg/kg IV push every 3-5 min

Continuous infusion for bradycardia and severe hypotension: 2 - 10 mcg/min.

Epinephrine can be delivered via the endotracheal tube. Increase dose 2-2.5 times IV dose.

Potential complications: hypertension and tachycardia, arrhythmias, especially ventricular ectopy, myocardial ischaemia.

Synonyms: adrenaline.

(15 Mar 2000)

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epinephrine cyclasemedical dictionary

<enzyme>

<cell biology> Epinephrine is converted to adrenochrome

Registry number: EC 1.10.3.-

Synonyms: catecholamine cyclase

(26 Jun 1999)

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epinephrine reversalmedical dictionary

The fall in blood pressure produced by epinephrine when given following blockage of alpha-adrenergic receptors by an appropriate drug such as phenoxybenzamine; the vasodilation reflects the ability of epinephrine to activate beta-adrenergic receptors which, in vascular smooth muscle, are inhibitory; in the absence of alpha-receptor blockade, the beta-receptor activation by epinephrine is masked by its predominant action on vascular alpha-receptors, which causes vasoconstriction.

Synonyms: adrenaline reversal.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Synonyms: suprarenal gland.

Origin: epi-+ G. Nephros, kidney

(05 Mar 2000)

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<anatomy> Arising from the neurapophysis of a vertebra.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + neural.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Relating to the epineurium.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<anatomy> The connective tissue framework and sheath of a nerve which bind together the nerve bundles, each of which has its own special sheath, or perineurium.

Origin: NL, fr. Gr. Upon + a nerve.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Relating to epinosis.

(05 Mar 2000)

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An imaginary feeling of illness following a real illness.

Origin: epi-+ G. Nosos, disease

(05 Mar 2000)

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Preferred term: eponychium

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<ornithology> One of the gigantic ostrichlike birds of the genus aepiornis, only recently extinct. Its remains have been found in Madagascar.

Alternative forms: aepyornis.

Origin: NL., cf. F. Epiornis. See aepyornis.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<anatomy> The upper and outer element of periotic bone, in man forming a part of the temporal bone.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + Gr, gen, ear.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epiotic centremedical dictionary

The centre of ossification of the petrous part of the temporal bone that appears posterior to the posterior semicircular canal.

American spelling: epiotic center

(05 Mar 2000)

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epipapillary membranemedical dictionary

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1. Usable as a dusting powder.

2. A dusting powder.

Origin: G. Epi-passo, to sprinkle over

(05 Mar 2000)

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epipedometrymedical dictionary

<geometry> The mensuration of figures standing on the same base.

Origin: Gr. On the ground, level (+ ground) + -metry.

(01 Mar 1998)

<person>

Preferred term: Piper, E

epipericardialmedical dictionary

Upon or about the pericardium.

(05 Mar 2000)

epipericardial ridgemedical dictionary

An elevation separating the developing pharyngeal region from the embryonic pericardium.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epiperipheralmedical dictionary

<physiology> Connected with, or having its origin upon, the external surface of the body; especially applied to the feelings which originate at the extremities of nerves distributed on the outer surface, as the sensation produced by touching an object with the finger; opposed to entoperipheral.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + peripheral.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Borne on the petals.

(09 Oct 1997)

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1. An appearance, or a becoming manifest. "Whom but just before they beheld transfigured and in a glorious epiphany upon the mount." (Jer. Taylor) "An epic poet, if ever such a difficult birth should make its epiphany in Paris." (De Quincey)

2. A church festival celebrated on the 6th of January, the twelfth day after Christmas, in commemoration of the visit of the Magi of the East to Bethlehem, to see and worship the child Jesus; or, as others maintain, to commemorate the appearance of the star to the Magi, symbolizing the manifestation of Christ to the Gentles; Twelfthtide.

Origin: F. Epiphanie, L. Epiphania, Gr. (sc), for appearance, fr. To show forth; + to show. See Fancy.

(01 Mar 1998)

epipharyngealmedical dictionary

<anatomy> Pertaining to the segments above the epibranchial in the branchial arches of fishes.

An epipharyngeal bone or cartilage.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + pharyngeal.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<entomology> A structure which overlaps the mouth of certain insects.

Origin: Epi- + pharynx.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epiphenomenonmedical dictionary

A symptom appearing during the course of a disease, not of usual occurrence, and not necessarily associated with the disease.

(05 Mar 2000)

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1. <medicine> The watery eye; a disease in which the tears accumulate in the eye, and trickle over the cheek.

2. The emphatic repetition of a word or phrase, at the end of several sentences or stanzas.

Origin: L, fr. Gr, fr. To bring to or upon; + to bring.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<marine biology> A membranaceous or calcareous septum with which some mollusks close the aperture of the shell during the time of hibernation, or aestivation.

Origin: Gr. A covering, lid, fr. To block up.

(19 Mar 1998)

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Epiphrenal

Upon or above the diaphragm.

Origin: epi-+ G. Phren, diaphragm

(05 Mar 2000)

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epiphrenic diverticulummedical dictionary

A diverticulum which originates just above the cardioesophageal junction and usually protrudes to the right side of the lower meadiastinum.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Growing on leaves, for example applied to vegetatively propagated plantlets in some members of the family Crassulaceae.

(09 Oct 1997)

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<botany> A genus of cactaceous plants having flattened, jointed stems, and petals united in a tube. The flowers are very showy, and several species are in cultivation.

(01 Mar 1998)

epiphylospermousmedical dictionary

<botany> Bearing fruit on the black of the leaves, as ferns.

Origin: Gr. + leaf + seed.

(01 Mar 1998)

<anatomy> Pertaining to or of the nature of an epiphysis.

(11 Mar 2008)

epiphyseal fracturemedical dictionary

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A part of a long bone where growth bone growth occurs from.

(27 Sep 1997)

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<anatomy> Pertaining to, or having the nature of, an epiphysis.

(01 Mar 1998)

epiphysial arrestmedical dictionary

Early and premature fusion between epiphysis and diaphysis.

(05 Mar 2000)

epiphysial aseptic necrosismedical dictionary
epiphysial cartilagemedical dictionary

Preferred term: epiphysial plate

epiphysial eyemedical dictionary

Preferred term: pineal eye

epiphysial linemedical dictionary

The line of junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone where growth in length occurs.

Synonyms: linea epiphysialis, synchondrosis epiphyseos.

(05 Mar 2000)

epiphysial platemedical dictionary

The disc of cartilage between the metaphysis and the epiphysis of an immature long bone permitting growth in length.

Synonyms: cartilago epiphysialis, epiphysial cartilage.

(05 Mar 2000)

epiphysiodesismedical dictionary

1. Premature union of the epiphysis with the diaphysis, resulting in cessation of growth.

2. An operative procedure that partially or totally destroys an epiphysis and may incorporate a bone graft to produce fusion of the epiphysis or premature cessation of its growth; generally undertaken to equalise leg length.

Origin: epiphysis + G. Desis, binding

(05 Mar 2000)

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epiphysiolysismedical dictionary

1. Loosening or separation, either partial or complete, of an epiphysis from the shaft of a bone.

2. Arrest of growth by ablation of the growth plate cartilage.

Origin: epiphysis + G. Lysis, loosening

(05 Mar 2000)

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epiphysiopathymedical dictionary

Any disorder of an epiphysis of the long bones.

Origin: epiphysis + G. Pathos, suffering

(05 Mar 2000)

A part of a long bone where growth bone growth occurs from.

(27 Sep 1997)

epiphysis cerebrimedical dictionary

Preferred term: pineal body

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Inflammation of an epiphysis.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<botany> Pertaining to an epiphyte.

(01 Mar 1998)

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A plant growing on, but not parasitic on, another plant (often loosely applied to plants, such as orchids, that grow on vertical rock faces).

Compare: parasite, saprophyte.

(09 Oct 1997)

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<botany> Pertaining to, or having the nature of, an epiphyte. Epiphyt"ically.

(01 Mar 1998)

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A virulent, widespread disease in a plant population. Often called anepidemic.

(09 Oct 1997)

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On the pia mater.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Origin: Pref. Epi- + plastron.

<anatomy> One of the first pair of lateral plates in the plastron of turtles.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<anatomy> Arising from the pleurapophysis of a vertebra.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + pleural.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<prefix>

Preferred term: omento-

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<surgery> Rarely used term for hernia of the omentum.

Origin: epiplo-+ G. Kele, hernia

(05 Mar 2000)

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Preferred term: omental

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epiploic appendagemedical dictionary

Preferred term: appendix epiploica

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epiploic appendixmedical dictionary

Preferred term: appendix epiploica

epiploic branchesmedical dictionary

Branches to the greater omentum; epiploic branches arise from the left and right gastroepiploic arteries (rami omentales arteriae gastro-omentalis sinistrae et dextrae ) opposite the gastric branches (rami gastrici ) along the greater curvature of the stomach.

Synonyms: rami omentales, omental branches, rami epiploicae.

(05 Mar 2000)

epiploic foramenmedical dictionary

<anatomy> The passage, below and behind the portal hepatis, connecting the two sacs of the peritoneum; it is bounded anteriorly by the hepatoduodenal ligament and posteriorly by a peritoneal fold over the inferior vena cava.

Synonyms: foramen omentale, foramen epiploicum, aditus ad saccum peritonei minorem, Duverney's foramen, Winslow's foramen.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epiploic tagsmedical dictionary

Preferred term: appendix epiploica

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Origin: NL, fr. Gr.

<anatomy> See Omentum.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<procedure>

An obsolete synonym of omentopexy.

Origin: epiplo-+ G. Pexis, fixation

(05 Mar 2000)

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1. <anatomy> Pertaining to the epipodialia or the parts of the limbs to which they belong.

2. <zoology> Pertaining to the epipodium of Mollusca.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Origin: NL, fr. Gr. Upon +, dim. Of, foot.

<anatomy> One of the bones of either the forearm or shank, the epipodialia being the radius, ulna, tibia, and fibula.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<zoology> The outer branch of the legs in certain Crustacea. See Maxilliped.

See: Epipodium.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Origin: NL, fr. Gr. Upon +, foot.

<zoology> One of the lateral lobes of the foot in certain gastropods.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<optics> Producing, or relating to, epipolism or fluorescence.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<optics> See Fluorescence.

Origin: Gr. A surface; + to be.

(01 Mar 1998)

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EpiP serine proteasemedical dictionary

<enzyme>

<cell biology> From staphylococcus epidermidis; epip is the processing enzyme that cleaves mature epidermin from its leader peptide

Registry number: EC 3.4.21.-

Synonyms: serine protease epip

(26 Jun 1999)

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<anatomy> Pertaining to a small Wormian bone sometimes present in the human skull between the parietal and the great wing of the sphenoid.

The epipteric bone.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + Gr. Wing. So called because above the wing of the sphenoid.

(01 Mar 1998)

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epipteric bonemedical dictionary

A sutural bone occasionally present at the pterion or junction of the parietal, frontal, greater wing of the sphenoid, and squamous portion of the temporal bone's.

Synonyms: Flower's bone.

(05 Mar 2000)

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epipterygoidmedical dictionary

<anatomy> Situated upon or above the pterygoid bone.

An epipterygoid bone or cartilage; the columella in the skulls of many lizards.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + pterygoid.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Origin: NL, epi- + pubis.

<anatomy> A cartilage or bone in front of the pubis in some amphibians and other animals.

(01 Mar 1998)

Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller, incomplete parasite is attached to the buttock of the larger autosite.

See: pygomelus, conjoined twins.

Origin: epi-+ G. Pyge, buttocks

(05 Mar 2000)

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epiretinal membranemedical dictionary

A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localised epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal oedema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery.

(12 Dec 1998)

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<chemical>

4-methoxy-2-(5-methoxy-3-methylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methylpyrimidine. A pyrimidinyl pyrazole with antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activity.

Pharmacological action: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

Chemical name: Pyrimidine, 4-methoxy-2-(5-methoxy-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-

(12 Dec 1998)

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<chemical>

An anthracycline antibiotic which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumour effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA. Clinical studies indicate activity in breast cancer, non-hodgkin's lymphomas, ovarian cancer, soft-tissue sarcomas, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, small-cell lung cancer and acute leukaemia. It is equal in activity to doxorubicin but exhibits less acute toxicities and less cardiotoxicity.

Pharmacological action: antibiotics, anthracycline.

Chemical name: 5,12-Naphthacenedione, 10-((3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-alpha-L-arabino-hexopyranosyl)oxy)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,8,11-trihydroxy-8-(hydroxyacetyl)-1-methoxy-, (8S-cis)-

(12 Dec 1998)

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The connective tissue between the sclera and the conjunctiva.

Origin: epi-+ sclera

(05 Mar 2000)

1. Upon the sclera.

2. Relating to the episclera.

(05 Mar 2000)

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episcleral arterymedical dictionary

<artery>

<anatomy> One of many small branches of the anterior ciliary arteries that arise as they perforate the sclera near the corneoscleral junction, and course on the sclera.

Synonyms: arteria episcleralis.

(05 Mar 2000)

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episcleral laminamedical dictionary

The delicate moveable layer of loose connective tissue between the external surface of the sclera and the fascial sheath of the eyeball.

Synonyms: lamina episcleralis.

(05 Mar 2000)

episcleral spacemedical dictionary

episclera, episcleral, episcleral artery, episcleral lamina < Prev | Next > episcleral veins, episcleritis

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episcleral veinsmedical dictionary

A series of small venules in the sclera close to the corneal margin that empty into the anterior ciliary veins.

Synonyms: venae episclerales.

(05 Mar 2000)

episcleritismedical dictionary

<pathology> Inflammation of the thin membrane which coats the sclera (white of the eye).

(27 Sep 1997)

episcleritis multinodularismedical dictionary

Episcleritis with numerous nodules near the corneoscleral limbus.

(05 Mar 2000)

episcleritis periodica fugaxmedical dictionary

episcleral veins, episcleritis, episcleritis multinodularis < Prev | Next > episepalous, episialin, episio-

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<botany> Growing on the sepals or adnate to them.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + sepal.

(01 Mar 1998)

<cell biology> Heavily glycosylated membrane glycoprotein. Encoded by the MUC 1 gene, has a molecular weight of around 300 kD, more than half of which is O linked glycan. There is a 69 residue cytoplasmic domain and the extracellular domain may extend hundreds of nanometres beyond the plasma membrane, the increased expression in carcinoma cells may reduce the adhesion and mask antigenic properties of the cells. Similar functions are ascribed to ASGP, epiglycanin and leucosialin.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

<prefix>

A combining form or prefix meaning relating to the vulva.

See: vulvo-.

Origin: G. Episeion, pubic region

(05 Mar 2000)

episioperineorrhaphymedical dictionary

Repair of an incised or a ruptured perineum and lacerated vulva or repair of a surgical incision of the vulva and perineum.

Origin: episio-+ G. Perinaion, perineum, + rhaphe, a stitching

(05 Mar 2000)

episioplastymedical dictionary

<procedure>

Plastic surgery of the vulva.

Origin: episio-+ G. Plastos, formed

(05 Mar 2000)

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episiorrhaphymedical dictionary

Repair of a lacerated vulva or an episiotomy.

Origin: episio-+ G. Rhaphe, a stitching

(05 Mar 2000)

episialin, episio-, episioperineorrhaphy, episioplasty < Prev | Next > episiostenosis, episiotomy, episkeletal

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episiostenosismedical dictionary

Narrowing of the vulvar orifice.

Origin: episio-+ G. Stenosis, narrowing

(05 Mar 2000)

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<procedure>

<obstetrics> A surgical incision into the perineum and vagina to prevent traumatic tearing during delivery.

Origin: Gr. Tom = a cutting

(11 Mar 2008)

<anatomy> Above or outside of the endoskeleton; epaxial.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + skeleletal.

(01 Mar 1998)

episioplasty, episiorrhaphy, episiostenosis, episiotomy < Prev | Next > episode, episode of care

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A noteworthy happening or series of happenings occurring in the course of continuous events, as an episode of illness, a separate but not unrelated incident.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

episode of caremedical dictionary

An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.

(12 Dec 1998)

episiostenosis, episiotomy, episkeletal, episode < Prev | Next > episodic dyscontrol syndrome, episome, epispadias

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episodic dyscontrol syndromemedical dictionary

episiotomy, episkeletal, episode, episode of care < Prev | Next > episome, epispadias, epispastic

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<molecular biology> Piece of hereditary material that can exist as free, autonomously replicating DNA or be attached to and integrated into the chromosome of the cell, in which case it replicates along with the chromosome.

Examples of episomes are many bacteriophages such as lambda and the male sex factor of Escherichia coli.

Origin: Gr. Soma = body

(11 Mar 2008)

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A congenital defect resulting in the urethral opening on the dorsum of the penis.

(27 Sep 1997)

episode of care, episodic dyscontrol syndrome, episome < Prev | Next > epispastic, episperm, epispermic

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<medicine> Attracting the humors to the skin; exciting action in the skin; blistering.

Origin: Gr, fr. To draw to, attract; to + to draw: cf. F. Epispastique.

<medicine> An external application to the skin, which produces a puriform or serous discharge by exciting inflammation; a vesicatory.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<botany> The skin or coat of a seed, especially the outer coat. See Testa.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + Gr. Seed: cf. F. Episperme.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<botany> Pertaining, or belonging, to the episperm, or covering of a seed.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Upon the vertebral column or spinal cord, or upon any structure resembling a spine.

(05 Mar 2000)

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episplenitismedical dictionary

Inflammation of the capsule of the spleen.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<botany> The thickish outer coat of certain spores.

Origin: Pref. Epi- + spore.

(01 Mar 1998)

episperm, epispermic, epispinal, episplenitis < Prev | Next > epistasis, epistasis, genetic, epistasy

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1. The formation of a pellicle or scum on the surface of a liquid, especially as on standing urine.

2. Phenotypic interaction of non-allelic genes.

3. A form of gene interaction whereby one gene masks or interferes with the phenotypic expression of one or more genes at other loci; the gene whose phenotype is expressed is said to be "epistatic," while the phenotype altered or suppressed is then said to be "hypostatic".

Synonyms: epistasy.

Origin: G. Scum; epi-+ G. Stasis, a standing

(05 Mar 2000)