1. <research> A systematic distortion of research results due to the lack of objectivity, fairness, or impartiality on the part of the evaluator or assessor.

2. <statistics> A disparity in research or test results due to using improper assessment tools or instruments across groups.

(09 Mar 2006)

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<statistics> In a clinical trial, bias refers to effects that a conclusion that may be incorrect as, for example, when a researcher or patient knows what treatment is being given. To avoid bias, a blinded study may be done.

Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation.

Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

(27 Jun 1999)

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