A polypeptide component of insulin containing 21 amino acyl residues, beginning with a glycyl residue (NH2-terminus); insulin is formed by the linkage of an A chain to a B chain by two disulfide bonds; the amino-acid composition of the A chain is a function of species.

Synonyms: glycyl chain.

In general, one of the polypeptides in a multiprotein complex.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<gastroenterology> Constriction of the lower portion of the food pipe (oesophagus) due to inability of the sphincter muscles to relax.

Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, chest pain, vomiting and heartburn.

Treatment includes oesophageal dilation using special instruments or medications (for example nitroglycerin, calcium channel blockers).

(27 Sep 1997)

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Achard, E. Charlesbiographical dictionary

<person>

A French physician, 1860-1941.

See: Achard syndrome, Achard-Thiers syndrome.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Achard syndromemedical dictionary

<syndrome>

Arachnodactyly with small receding mandible, broad skull, and joint laxity limited to the hands and feet; genetics unclear.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Achard-Thiers syndromemedical dictionary

<syndrome>

One form of a virilizing disorder of adrenocortical origin in women, characterised by masculinization and menstrual disorders in association with manifestations of diabetes mellitus, such as glucosuria.

(05 Mar 2000)

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1. Purchase; bargaining.

2. Provisions. Same as Cates.

Origin: F. Achat purchase. See Cates.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<zoology> A genus of land snails, often large, common in the warm parts of America and Africa.

Origin: NL, from Gr. Agate.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<botany> A name given to several species of plants; as, smallage, wild celery, parsley.

Origin: F. Ache, L. Apium parsley.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Congenital absence of the lips.

Origin: G. A-priv. + cheilos, lip

(05 Mar 2000)

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Characterised by or relating to acheilia.

(05 Mar 2000)

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1. Congenital absence of one or both hands.

2. Anaesthesia in, with loss of the sense of possession of, one or both hands; a condition sometimes noted in hysteria.

3. A form of dyscheiria in which the patient is unable to tell on which side of the body a stimulus has been applied.

Origin: G. A-priv. + cheir, hand

(05 Mar 2000)

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Characterised by or relating to acheiria.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Achenbach syndromemedical dictionary

<syndrome>

Haematoma of the finger pad with accompanying oedema; of unknown cause in the absence of disturbances in blood coagulation mechanisms.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Achenbach, Walterbiographical dictionary

<person>

A 20th century German internist.

See: Achenbach syndrome.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<botany> A dry, closed (indehiscent) fruit which contains a single seed.

(06 May 1997)

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<botany> A small, dry, indehiscent fruit, containing a single seed, as in the buttercup; called a naked seed by the earlier botanists.

Alternative forms: akene and achaenium.

Origin: Gr. Priv. + to gape.

(01 Mar 1998)

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A river in the Nether World or infernal regions; also, the infernal regions themselves. By some of the English poets it was supposed to be a flaming lake or gulf.

Origin: L, fr. Gr.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<cell biology> Undergoing meiosis, a process where the cells nucleus divides, without reaching the stage at which homologous chromatids pair to exchange genetic material (called chiasmata).

(13 Nov 1997)

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This entry has no definition yet.

(14 Jan 2009)

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Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (especially. Scholastic) or in general.

(12 Dec 1998)

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achievement agemedical dictionary

The relationship between the chronologic age and the age of achievement, as established by standard achievement tests.

(05 Mar 2000)

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achievement motivemedical dictionary

An acquired, chronic need to succeed in the face of recognizable obstacles; its strength is usually diagnosed from recurring themes in stories told by the individual while taking a thematic apperception test or from other assessment instruments used by clinical psychologists.

(05 Mar 2000)

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achievement testmedical dictionary

A standardised test used to measure acquired learning, e.g., competence in a specific subject area such as reading or arithmetic, in contrast to an intelligence test which is a useful index of potential ability or learning.

(05 Mar 2000)

achievement testingeducation dictionary

A test to evaluate the extent of knowledge or skill attained by a test taker in a content domain in which the test taker had received instruction.

(14 Jan 2009)

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achievement testseducation dictionary

<assessment> Subject examinations, used to measure academic achievement and for student placement.

(07 Mar 2006)

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<person>

Preferred term: Breda, Achille

<person>

Preferred term: Civatte, Achille

Achille-Etienne Malecotbiographical dictionary

<person>

Preferred term: Malecot, Achille-Etienne

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<person>

Preferred term: Foville, Achille

Mythical Greek warrior, vulnerable only in the heel.

See: Achilles bursa, Achilles reflex, Achilles tendon.

(05 Mar 2000)

Achilles bursamedical dictionary

Preferred term: bursa of tendo calcaneus

Achilles reflexmedical dictionary
achilles tendonmedical dictionary

<anatomy> The tendon which attaches to the heel and originates from the muscles in the calf (the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles). A strong fibrous tendon which connects the gastrocnemius muscle (calf) to the calcaneous bone in the foot.

(27 Sep 1997)

achilles' tendonmedical dictionary

<anatomy> The strong tendon formed of the united tendons of the large muscles in the calf of the leg, an inserted into the bone of the heel; so called from the mythological account of Achilles being held by the heel when dipped in the River Styx.

Origin: L. Achillis tendo.

(01 Mar 1998)

achillobursitismedical dictionary

Inflammation of a bursa in proximity to the tendo calcaneus.

Synonyms: retrocalcaneobursitis.

(05 Mar 2000)

achillodyniamedical dictionary

<symptom>

Pain due to inflammation of the bursa between the calcaneus and the tendo calcaneus (achillobursitis).

Origin: Achilles (tendon) + G. Odyne, pain

(05 Mar 2000)

achillorrhaphymedical dictionary

Suture of the tendo calcaneus.

Origin: Achilles (tendon) + G. Rhaphe, a sewing

(05 Mar 2000)

achillotenotomymedical dictionary

<procedure>

Synonyms: achillotomy.

Origin: Achilles (tendon) + G. Tenon, tendon, + tome, a cutting

(05 Mar 2000)

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<procedure>

<surgery> Division of the tendo calcaneus.

Synonyms: achillotenotomy.

Origin: Achilles (tendon) + G. Tome, incision

(05 Mar 2000)

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<botany> Without a lip.

Origin: Gr. Priv. + lip.

(01 Mar 1998)

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That aches; continuously painful. See Ache. Ach"ingly, "The aching heart, the aching head." (Longfellow)

(01 Mar 1998)

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Seeds of the annotto tree; also, the colouring matter, annotto.

Origin: Sp. Achiote, fr. Indian achiotl.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<chemistry> A term used to describe a molecule which, in a given configuration, is superimposible on its mirror image. This is in contrast to chiral molecules which cannot be superimposed on their mirror images.

(13 Nov 1997)

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Congenital absence of the hands and feet; autosomal recessive inheritance.

Origin: G. A-priv. + cheir, hand, + podos, foot

(05 Mar 2000)

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<zoology> Not possessing a mantle; said of certain gastropods.

Origin: Gr. Priv. + . A short cloak.

(01 Mar 1998)

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achlamydeousmedical dictionary

<botany> Naked; having no floral envelope, neither calyx nor corolla.

(01 Mar 1998)

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achlorhydriamedical dictionary

<gastroenterology> The absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice.

(27 Sep 1997)

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achlorhydric anaemiamedical dictionary

A form of chronic hypochromic microcytic anaemia associated with achlorhydria or achylia gastrica; observed most frequently in women in the third to fifth decades.

Synonyms: Faber's anaemia, Faber's syndrome.

American spelling: achlorhydric anemia

(05 Mar 2000)

achlorophyllousmedical dictionary

Without chlorophyll, as in fungi.

(05 Mar 2000)

acholeplasmamedical dictionary

A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.

(12 Dec 1998)

Acholeplasma axanthummedical dictionary

A species originally found in a murine leukaemia cell line; ecology not determined.

(05 Mar 2000)

Acholeplasma granularummedical dictionary

A species that occurs as a commensal in swine; pathogenicity not determined.

(05 Mar 2000)

acholeplasma laidlawiimedical dictionary

An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.

(12 Dec 1998)

acholeplasmataceaemedical dictionary

Gram-negative organisms including apparently free-living saprophytes as well as mammalian and avian parasites, and possibly pathogens.

(12 Dec 1998)

<gastroenterology> Absence of or failure to secrete bile.

(09 Oct 1997)

Without bile, as in acholic (pale) stools.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<medicine> Lacking bile.

(01 Mar 1998)

<gastroenterology> A term used to describe the absence of bile pigment in the urine, usually in the context of describing a type of jaundice characterised by this.

Origin: Gr. Ouron = urine

(13 Nov 1997)

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Without bile in the urine.

(05 Mar 2000)

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acholuric jaundicemedical dictionary

Jaundice with excessive amounts of unconjugated bilirubin in the plasma and without bile pigments in the urine.

(05 Mar 2000)

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achondrogenesismedical dictionary

Dwarfism accompanied by various bone aplasias of all four limbs, a normal or enlarged skull, and a short trunk with delayed ossification of the lower spine; autosomal recessive inheritance. A new dominant mutation of type II collagen has been reported.

Origin: G. A-priv., + chondros, cartilage, + genesis, origin

(05 Mar 2000)

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achondroplasiamedical dictionary

<paediatrics> A birth deformity characterised by imperfect bone formation. It results in dwarfs with normal-sized heads but short arms and legs.

Origin: Gr. Plassein = to form

(27 Sep 1997)

achondroplasticmedical dictionary

Relating to or characterised by achondroplasia.

(05 Mar 2000)

achondroplastic dwarfismmedical dictionary

Preferred term: achondroplasia

achoo syndromemedical dictionary

<syndrome>

A disorder characterised by nearly uncontrollable paroxysms of sneezing provoked in a reflex fashion by the sudden exposure of a dark-adapted subject to intensely bright light, usually sunlight.

Inheritance: autosomal dominant.

(05 Aug 1998)

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Preferred term: achordate

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Referring to animal forms below the Chordata that do not develop a notochord or chorda.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Permanent contraction of a hollow viscus, such as the stomach or bladder, whereby its capacity is reduced.

Origin: G. A-priv. + choreo, to make room, fr. Choros, space

(05 Mar 2000)

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Former name for Trichophyton.

Origin: G. Achor, dandruff

(05 Mar 2000)

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achrestic anaemiamedical dictionary

A form of chronic progressive macrocytic anaemia that can be fatal in which the changes in bone marrow and circulating blood closely resemble those of pernicious anaemia, but in which there is only transient or no response to therapy with vitamin B12; glossitis, gastrointestinal disturbances, central nervous system disease, and pyrexia are not observed, and there is only little bleeding or haemolysis.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chresis, a using

American spelling: achrestic anemia

(05 Mar 2000)

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A colourless cell.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chroa, colour, + kytos, a hollow (cell)

(05 Mar 2000)

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achroacytosismedical dictionary

An obsolete term for lymphocytosis.

(05 Mar 2000)

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achrodextrinmedical dictionary

Synonyms: achroodextrin.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chroma, colour, + dextrin

(05 Mar 2000)

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Preferred term: achromocyte

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1. Pallor associated with hippocratic facies, emaciation, and weakness, often heralding a moribund state.

Synonyms: cachectic pallor, achromia.

Origin: G. Achromos, colourless

(05 Mar 2000)

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A person exhibiting achromatopsia.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chroma, colour

(05 Mar 2000)

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<microscopy> Literally, colour-free. A lens or prism is said to be achromatic when corrected for two colours. The remaining colour seen in an image formed by such a lens is said to be secondary chromatic aberration.

A truly achromatic lens would transmit light without decomposing it spectrally and there would be no colour fringing in the image. A doublet, composed of a positive and negative lens element, can be made achromatic for two colours which much improves the performance for most of the others.

(05 Aug 1998)

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achromaticallymedical dictionary

In an achromatic manner.

(01 Mar 1998)

achromatic aplanatic condensermedical dictionary

<microscopy> A well-corrected microscope condenser lens, corrected for chromatic and spherical aberrations and satisfying the sine condition.

(05 Aug 1998)

achromatic apparatusmedical dictionary

The nonstaining asters and spindle fibres in a dividing cell.

(05 Mar 2000)

achromaticitymedical dictionary

Preferred term: achromatism

achromatic lensmedical dictionary

A compound lens made of two or more lens's having different indices of refraction, so correlated as to minimise chromatic aberration.

(05 Mar 2000)

achromatic objectivemedical dictionary

<microscopy> An objective that is corrected chromatic for two colours, and spherically for one, usually in the yellow-green part of the spectrum.

(05 Aug 1998)

achromatic thresholdmedical dictionary

Preferred term: visual threshold

achromatic visionmedical dictionary

Preferred term: achromatopsia

<biology> Tissue which is not stained by fluid dyes.

(01 Mar 1998)

achromatinicmedical dictionary

Relating to or containing achromatin.

(05 Mar 2000)

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The state or quality of being achromatic; as, the achromatism of a lens; achromaticity.

Origin: Cf. F. Achromatisme.

(01 Mar 1998)

achromatizationmedical dictionary

The act or process of achromatizing.

Origin: Cf. F. Achromatisation.

(01 Mar 1998)

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To deprive of colour; to make achromatic.

Origin: Gr. Priv. + colour.

(01 Mar 1998)

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achromatocytemedical dictionary

Preferred term: achromocyte

achromatolysismedical dictionary

Dissolution of the achromatin of a cell or of its nucleus.

Synonyms: karyoplasmolysis.

(05 Mar 2000)

achromatophilmedical dictionary

1. Not being coloured by the histologic or bacteriologic stains.

Synonyms: achromophilic, achromophilous.

2. A cell or tissue that cannot be stained in the usual way.

Synonyms: achromophil.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chroma, colour, + philos, fond

(05 Mar 2000)

achromatophiliamedical dictionary

A condition of being refractory to staining processes.

(05 Mar 2000)

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achromatopsiamedical dictionary

A severe congenital deficiency in colour perception, often associated with nystagmus and reduced visual acuity.

Synonyms: achromatic vision, monochromasia, monochromasy, monochromatism.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chroma, colour, + opsis, vision

(05 Mar 2000)

achromatopsymedical dictionary

Colour blindness; inability to distinguish colours; Daltonism.

Origin: Gr. Priv. + colour + sight.

(01 Mar 1998)

achromatosismedical dictionary

Synonyms: achromia.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chroma, colour

(05 Mar 2000)

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Colourless.

(05 Mar 2000)

achromaturiamedical dictionary

The passage of colourless or very pale urine.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chroma, colour, + ouron, urine

(05 Mar 2000)

1. Depigmentation; absence, or loss of natural pigmentation of the skin and iris; may be congenital or acquired.

See: depigmentation.

2. Lack of capacity to accept stains in cells or tissue.

Synonyms: achromasia, achromatosis.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chroma, colour

(05 Mar 2000)

achromia parasiticamedical dictionary

A phase of lessening or absence of pigmentation in cutaneous lesions, caused by the fungus Malassezia furfur.

See: tinea versicolor.

(05 Mar 2000)

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achromia unguiummedical dictionary

Preferred term: leukonychia

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Colourless.

(05 Mar 2000)

A hypochromic, crescent-shaped erythrocyte, probably resulting from artifactual rupture of a red cell with loss of haemoglobin.

Synonyms: achromacyte, achromatocyte, ghost corpuscle, phantom corpuscle, Ponfick's shadow, shadow corpuscle, shadow, Traube's corpuscle.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chroma, colour, + kytos, hollow (cell)

(05 Mar 2000)

achromia, achromia parasitica, achromia unguium, achromic < Prev | Next > achromoderma, achromophil, achromophilic

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achromodermamedical dictionary

Preferred term: leukoderma

Preferred term: achromatophil

achromia unguium, achromic, achromocyte, achromoderma < Prev | Next > achromophilic, achromotrichia, achroodextrin

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achromophilicmedical dictionary

Preferred term: achromatophil

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achromotrichiamedical dictionary

<clinical sign>

<clinical examination> Absence or loss of pigment in the hair.

(27 Sep 1997)

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achroodextrinmedical dictionary

<physiology> Dextrin not colourable by iodine. See Dextrin.

Origin: Gr. Colourless + E. Dextrin.

(01 Mar 1998)

achromoderma, achromophil, achromophilic, achromotrichia < Prev | Next > achroous, achylia, achylia gastrica

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Colourless; achromatic.

Origin: Gr.; priv. + colour.

(01 Mar 1998)

1. Absence of gastric juice or other digestive secretions.

2. Absence of chyle.

Origin: G. A-priv. + chylos, juice

(05 Mar 2000)

achylia gastricamedical dictionary

A diminished or abolished secretion of gastric juice associated with atrophy of the mucous membrane of the stomach.

(05 Mar 2000)

achromotrichia, achroodextrin, achroous, achylia < Prev | Next > achylia pancreatica, achylous, achymous

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achylia pancreaticamedical dictionary

A deficiency or absence of pancreatic secretion, usually resulting in fatty stools, emaciation, and impaired nutrition.

(05 Mar 2000)

achroodextrin, achroous, achylia, achylia gastrica < Prev | Next > achylous, achymous, ACIA, acicula

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<physiology> Without chyle.

Origin: Gr. Without juice.

(01 Mar 1998)

achroous, achylia, achylia gastrica, achylia pancreatica < Prev | Next > achymous, ACIA, acicula, acicular

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<physiology> Without chyme.

Origin: Gr. Without juice.

(01 Mar 1998)

achylia, achylia gastrica, achylia pancreatica, achylous < Prev | Next > ACIA, acicula, acicular, aciculate

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