<suffix>

1. A suffix used in scientific words in the sense of producing, generating: as, amphigen, amidogen, halogen.

2. A suffix meaning produced, precursor of, generated; as, exogen.

See: pro-.

Origin: From Gr. -gen-, from the same root as genos race, stock. From Gr. suffix -genhs born.

(06 Feb 2009)

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<prefix>

A combining form or prefix meaning born, producing, coming to be.

Origin: G. Genos, birth

(05 Mar 2000)

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1. <zoology> The cheek; the feathered side of the under mandible of a bird.

2. <entomology> The part of the head to which the jaws of an insect are attached.

Origin: L, the cheek.

(01 Mar 1998)

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Relating to the gena, or cheek.

(05 Mar 2000)

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genal glandsmedical dictionary

Preferred term: buccal glands

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A database of nucleic acid and protein sequences at the National Library of Medicine in the United States of America, compiled from international sources. It has sequence data in 13 different categories: primate, mammal, rodent, vertebrate, invertebrate, organelle, RNA, bacteria, plant, virus, bacteriophage, synthetic, and other. It is similar to the European Molecular Biology Lab gene bank in Germany.

WWW: Genebank

(09 Oct 1997)

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1. Kind; sort. "One gender of herbs."

2. Sex, male or female.

3. A classification of nouns, primarily according to sex; and secondarily according to some fancied or imputed quality associated with sex. "Gender is a grammatical distinction and applies to words only. Sex is natural distinction and applies to living objects." (R. Morris)

Adjectives and pronouns are said to vary in gender when the form is varied according to the gender of the words to which they refer.

Origin: OF. Genre, gendre (with excrescent d), F.genre, fr. L. Genus, generis, birth, descent, race, kind, gender, fr. The root of genere, gignere, to beget, in pass, to be born, akin to E. Kin. See Kin, and cf. Generate, Genre, Gentle, Genus.

(01 Mar 1998)

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gender dysphoria syndromemedical dictionary

<syndrome>

A syndrome in which an individual experiences marked personal stress due to feelings that despite having the genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics of one gender there is a sense of compatibility and greater belonging to the other gender class; one may undergo surgery to reconstruct anatomy to that of the other gender.

(05 Mar 2000)

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gender identitymedical dictionary

<psychiatry> A person's concept of himself as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, usually based on the physical characteristics, parental attitudes and expectations, and psychological and social pressures to which the individual is subjected. It is the private experience of gender role.

(12 Dec 1998)

gender identity disordersmedical dictionary

<psychiatry> A class of mental disorders characterised by an incongruity between an assigned culturally determined set of attitudes, behaviour patterns, and physical characteristics associated with masculinity or femininity and gender identity.

See: transsexualism.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<computer hardware> A cable connector shell with either two male or two female connectors on it, used to correct the mismatches that result when some loser didn't understand the EIA-232C specification and the distinction between DTE and DCE. Used especially for EIA-232C parts in either the original D-25 or the IBM PC's D-9 connector.

There appears to be some confusion as to whether a "male homosexual adaptor" has pins on both sides (is doubly male) or sockets on both sides (connects two males).

Synonyms: gender bender, gender blender, sex changer, homosexual adaptor

(01 Mar 1995)

The sex of a child assigned by a parent; when opposite to the child's anatomical sex (e.g., due to genital ambiguity at birth or to the parents' strong wish for a child of the opposite sex), the basis is set for postpubertal dysfunctions.

See: sex role, sex reversal.

(05 Mar 2000)

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<cell biology, molecular biology> Originally defined as the physical unit of heredity, it is probably best defined as the unit of inheritance that occupies a specific locus on a chromosome, the existence of which can be confirmed by the occurrence of different allelic forms.

Genes are formed from DNA, carried on the chromosomes and are responsible for the inherited characteristics that distinguish one individual from another. Each human individual has an estimated 100,000 separate genes.

Given the occurrence of split genes, it might be redefined as the set of DNA sequences (exons) that are required to produce a single polypeptide.

(09 Oct 1997)

gene activationmedical dictionary

The process of activation of a gene so that it is expressed at a particular time. This process is crucial in growth and development.

(05 Mar 2000)

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geneagenesismedical dictionary

<biology> Alternate generation. See Generation.

Origin: Gr. Race + E. Genesis.

(01 Mar 1998)

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genealogicalmedical dictionary

Of or pertaining to genealogy; as, a genealogical table; genealogical order. Genealog"ically, Genealogical tree, a family lineage or genealogy drawn out under the form of a tree and its branches.

Origin: Cf. F. Genealogique.

(01 Mar 1998)

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1. Heredity.

2. The explicit assembly of the descent of a person or family; it may be of any length.

Origin: G. Genea, descent, + logos, study

(05 Mar 2000)

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<person>

A former IBM engineer who founded Amdahl Corporation.

(01 Mar 1995)

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gene amplificationmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> Selective replication of DNA sequence within a cell, producing multiple extra copies of that sequence. The best known example occurs during the maturation of the oocyte of Xenopus, where the set (normally 500 copies) of ribosomal RNA genes is replicated some 4,000 times to give about 2 million copies.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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A group of genes which are coordinately controlled.

(09 Oct 1997)

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gene cloningmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> The insertion of a DNA sequence into a vector that can then be propagated in a host organism, generating a large number of copies of the sequence.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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gene clustermedical dictionary

A set of closely related genes that code for the same or similar proteins and which are usuallygrouped together on the same chromosome.

(09 Oct 1997)

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<study>

The scientific study of genetic variation within a species as it relatesto the environment.

(09 Oct 1997)

gene conversionmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> A phenomenon in which alleles are segregated in a 3:1 not 2:2 ratio in meiosis. May be a result of DNA polymerase switching templates and copying from the other homologous sequence or a result of mismatch repair (nucleotides being removed from one strand and replaced by repair synthesis using the other strand as template).

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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gene deletionmedical dictionary

The total loss (or absence) of a gene. Gene deletion plays a role in birth defects and in the development of cancer.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene disordermedical dictionary
gene disruptionmedical dictionary

Use of both in vitro and in vivo recombination to substitute an easily selected mutant gene for a wild-type gene.

(09 Oct 1997)

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gene divergencemedical dictionary

The difference (expressed as a percentage) in the nucleotide sequencesbetween two related genes that developed from the same ancestral gene.

(09 Oct 1997)

<molecular biology> Number of copies of a particular gene locus in the genome, in most cases either one or two.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

gene dosage compensationmedical dictionary

The putative mechanism that adjusts the X-linked phenotypes of males and females to compensate for the haploid state in males and the diploid state in females. It is now largely ascribed to lyonization which compensates the mean of the dose but not its variance, which is greater in females.

(05 Mar 2000)

gene dosage effectmedical dictionary

In codominant alleles, the more or less linear relationship between the phenotypic value and the number of genes of one type substituted by another type.

(05 Mar 2000)

gene duplicationmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> A class of DNA rearrangement that generates a supernumerary copy of a gene in the genome. This would allow each gene to evolve independently to produce distinct functions. Such a set of evolutionarily related genes can be called a gene family.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

gene, evolutionarily conservedmedical dictionary

A gene that has remained essentially unchanged throughout evolution. Conservation of a gene indicates that it is unique and essential. There is not an extra copy of that gene with which evolution can tinker. And changes in the gene are likely to be lethal.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene expressionmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> The full use of the information in a gene via transcription and translation leading to production of a protein and hence the appearance of the phenotype determined by that gene. Gene expression is assumed to be controlled at various points in the sequence leading to protein synthesis and this control is thought to be the major determinant of cellular differentiation in eukaryotes.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

gene expression regulationmedical dictionary

Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action at the level of transcription or translation. These processes include gene activation and genetic induction.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene expression regulation, archaealmedical dictionary

Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene expression regulation, bacterialmedical dictionary

Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene expression regulation, developmentalmedical dictionary

Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene expression regulation, enzymologicmedical dictionary
gene expression regulation, fungalmedical dictionary

Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene expression regulation, leukaemicmedical dictionary

Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukaemia.

American spelling: gene expression regulation, leukemic

(12 Dec 1998)

gene expression regulation, neoplasticmedical dictionary
gene expression regulation, plantmedical dictionary

Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene expression regulation, viralmedical dictionary

Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene familiesmedical dictionary

Groups of closely related genes that makesimilar products.

(09 Oct 1997)

<molecular biology> A set of genes coding for diverse proteins which, by virtue of their high degree of sequence similarity, are believed to have evolved from a single ancestral gene. An example is the immunoglobulin family where the characteristic features of the constant domains are found in various cell surface receptors.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

The movement of genes from one population to another viainterbreeding.

(09 Oct 1997)

gene frequencymedical dictionary

The relative occurence (expressed as a percentage) of a gene in a given population.

(09 Oct 1997)

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gene insertionmedical dictionary

The addition of one or more genesinto a genome from an externalsource.

(09 Oct 1997)

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gene isolationmedical dictionary

A condition caused by a pair of alleles that, when present in the heterozygous form, inhibit the fertility of the organism that possessesthem.

(09 Oct 1997)

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gene librarymedical dictionary

<molecular biology> A collection of cloned DNA fragments that contains all the genetic information of a particular organism.

(09 Oct 1997)

gene machinemedical dictionary

A computerised device for synthesizing genes by combining nucleotides (bases) in a specified order.

(14 Nov 1997)

gene mappingmedical dictionary

Determination of the relative positions of genes on a DNA molecule (chromosome or plasmid) and of the distance, in linkage units or physical units, between them.

(09 Oct 1997)

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gene markersmedical dictionary

Detectable genetic traits or distinctive segments of DNA that serve as landmarks for a target gene. Markers are on the same chromosome as the target gene. They must be near enough to the target gene to be genetically linked to it: to be inherited usually together with that gene, and so serve as signposts to it.

(12 Dec 1998)

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gene mosaicismmedical dictionary

Preferred term: mosaic

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The total sum of genetic information present in a population at anygiven moment.

(09 Oct 1997)

A biomolecule that islabelled with radioactive isotopes or with a fluorescent marker that selectively binds to a specific gene so it can be isolated or identified.

(09 Oct 1997)

gene productmedical dictionary

The biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene. The amount of gene product is used to measure how active a gene is, abnormal amounts can be correlated with disease-causing alleles.

(09 Oct 1997)

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gene products, envmedical dictionary

Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesised as protein precursors (polyproteins) and later cleaved into the final products by a viral protease.

(12 Dec 1998)

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gene products, gagmedical dictionary

Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesised as protein precursors or polyproteins, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. Gag is short for group-specific antigen.

(12 Dec 1998)

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gene products, nefmedical dictionary

Products of the HIV nef gene (formerly 3'-orf gene). The products trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. Nef stands for negative factor.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene products, polmedical dictionary

Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. Often synthesised as a gag-pol fusion protein (fusion proteins, gag-pol) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene products, revmedical dictionary

Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for HIV viral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the HIV gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. Rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (car) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (rre), is responsive to the rev gene product. Rev is short for regulator of virion.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene products, rexmedical dictionary

Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HTLV-I and HTLV-II. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the ltr.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene products, tatmedical dictionary

Trans-acting transcription factors. Nuclear proteins whose expression is required for HIV viral replication. The tat protein stimulates HIV-ltr-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. Tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene products, taxmedical dictionary

Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long-terminal repeats (ltr) of HTLV-I and HTLV-II. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the ltr.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene products, vifmedical dictionary

A 23 kD regulatory protein important for virion infectivity in HIV. The protein is found in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells and is not absolutely required for virion formation.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene products, vprmedical dictionary

Trans-acting proteins which accelerate virus replication in HIV. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of HIV specified proteins. Vpr is short for viral protein r, where r is undefined.

(12 Dec 1998)

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gene products, vpumedical dictionary

Non-glycosylated, membrane-associated, 16 kD proteins which are expressed in large amounts in cells infected with HIV-1. The proteins are required for efficient virion maturation and release. They are not present in HIV-2 nor in siv. Vpu is short for viral protein u, with u undefined.

(12 Dec 1998)

Plural of genus.

(05 Mar 2000)

1. Relating to a genus or kind; pertaining to a whole class or order; as, a general law of animal or vegetable economy.

2. Comprehending many species or individuals; not special or particular; including all particulars; as, a general inference or conclusion.

3. Not restrained or limited to a precise import; not specific; vague; indefinite; lax in signification; as, a loose and general expression.

4. Common to many, or the greatest number; widely spread; prevalent; extensive, though not universal; as, a general opinion; a general custom. "This general applause and cheerful sout Argue your wisdom and your love to Richard." (Shak)

5. Having a relation to all; common to the whole; as, Adam, our general sire.

6. As a whole; in gross; for the most part. "His general behavior vain, ridiculous." (Shak)

7. Usual; common, on most occasions; as, his general habit or method.

The word general, annexed to a name of office, usually denotes chief or superior; as, attorney-general; adjutant general; commissary general; quartermaster general; vicar-general, etc. General agent, a warrant, now illegal, to apprehend suspected persons, without naming individuals.

Synonyms: General, Common, Universal.

Common denotes primarily that in which many share; and hence, that which is often met with. General is stronger, denoting that which pertains to a majority of the individuals which compose a genus, or whole. Universal, that which pertains to all without exception. To be able to read and write is so common an attainment in the United States, that we may pronounce it general, though by no means universal.

1. The whole; the total; that which comprehends or relates to all, or the chief part; opposed to particular. "In particulars our knowledge begins, and so spreads itself by degrees to generals." (Locke)

2. One of the chief military officers of a government or country; the commander of an army, of a body of men not less than a brigade. In European armies, the highest military rank next below field marshal.

In the United States the office of General of the Army has been created by temporary laws, and has been held only by Generals U. S. Grant, W. T. Sherman, and P. H. Sheridan. Popularly, the title General is given to various general officers, as General, Lieutenant general, Major general, Brigadier general, Commissary general, etc. See Brigadier general, Lieutenant general, Major general, in the Vocabulary.

3. The roll of the drum which calls the troops together; as, to beat the general.

4. The chief of an order of monks, or of all the houses or congregations under the same rule.

5. The public; the people; the vulgar. In general, in the main; for the most part.

Origin: F. General, fr. L. Generalis. See Genus.

(01 Mar 1998)

general acid-base catalysismedical dictionary

A catalytic reaction that involves the tranfer of a proton to or from anon-water molecule.

(09 Oct 1997)

General Activities Simulation Programcomputing dictionary

<simulation, library> (GASP) A set of discrete system simulation subroutines for Fortran.

(01 Aug 2003)

general adaptation syndromemedical dictionary

<syndrome>

The sum of all non-specific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.

(12 Dec 1998)

General Aerodynamic Simulation Programcomputing dictionary

<simulation> (GASP)

MORE.

[Summary?]

(01 Aug 2003)

general anaesthesiamedical dictionary

A form of anaesthesia that results in putting the patient to sleep. Total body anaesthesia.

Origin: Gr. Aisthesis = sensation

American spelling: general anesthesia

(27 Sep 1997)

general anaestheticmedical dictionary

A compound that produces loss of sensation associated with loss of consciousness.

American spelling: general anesthetic

(05 Mar 2000)

general anatomymedical dictionary

The study of gross and microscopic structures as well as of the composition of the body, its tissues and fluids.

(05 Mar 2000)

general bloodlettingmedical dictionary

Removing blood by arteriotomy or phlebotomy.

(05 Mar 2000)

general duty nursemedical dictionary

Nurse who accepts assignment to any unit of a hospital other than an intensive care unit.

(05 Mar 2000)

general educationeducation dictionary

A component of the undergraduate curriculum designed to provide breadth to the curriculum and a common undergraduate experience for all students. It is usually defined on an institution-wide basis and involves study in several subject area.

(14 Jan 2009)

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General Electriccomputing dictionary

<company>

(GE) A US company that manufactured computers from 1956 until 1970, when it sold its computer division to Honeywell and left the computer business. Notable GE computers were the GE-265, which supported the Dartmouth Time-sharing System (DTSS), and the GE-645 used for Multics development.

See also: GCOS.

Not to be confused with the General Electric Company (GEC) in the UK (where FOLDOC's first seeds were sown).

Acronym: GE

(01 Jul 2002)

General Electric Comprehensive Operating Systemcomputing dictionary

Preferred term: GCOS

general fertility ratemedical dictionary

A refined measure of fertility in a population; the numerator is the number of live births in a year, the denominator is the number of females of child-bearing age, usually defined as ages 15-44 (but increasingly recognised as extending to age 49).

(05 Mar 2000)

general hospitalmedical dictionary

Any large civilian hospital that is equipped to care for medical, surgical, maternity, and psychiatric cases, and usually has a resident medical staff.

(05 Mar 2000)

general immunitymedical dictionary

Immunity associated with widely diffused mechanisms that tend to protect the body as a whole, as compared with local immunity.

(05 Mar 2000)

generalisationmedical dictionary

<psychology> The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.

(12 Dec 1998)

<zoology> Comprising structural characters which are separated in more specialized forms; synthetic; as, a generalised type.

(01 Mar 1998)

generalised anaphylaxismedical dictionary

The immediate response, involving smooth muscles and capillaries throughout the body of a sensitised individual, that follows intravenous (and occasionally intracutaneous) injection of antigen (allergen).

See: anaphylactic shock.

Synonyms: systemic anaphylaxis.

(05 Mar 2000)

generalised anxiety disordermedical dictionary

Chronic, repeated episodes of anxiety reactions; a psychological disorder in which anxiety or morbid fear and dread accompanied by autonomic changes are prominent features.

See: anxiety.

(05 Mar 2000)

generalised chondromalaciamedical dictionary

Preferred term: relapsing polychondritis

generalised cortical hyperostosismedical dictionary

Preferred term: van Buchem's syndrome

generalised elastolysismedical dictionary

Preferred term: cutis laxa

generalised emphysemamedical dictionary

Preferred term: panlobular emphysema

generalised epidermolytic hyperkeratosismedical dictionary
generalised epilepsymedical dictionary

A major category of epilepsy syndromes characterised by one or more types of generalised seizures.

(05 Mar 2000)

generalised eruptive histiocytomamedical dictionary

A rare recurring generalised eruption in adults of flesh coloured or erythematous papules remaining localised to the skin and consisting of dermal nodules of mononuclear histiocytes that do not stain for lipid.

Synonyms: nodular non-X histiocytosis.

(05 Mar 2000)

generalised gangliosidosismedical dictionary

Preferred term: gM1 gangliosidosis

generalised glycogenosismedical dictionary

Preferred term: type 2 glycogenosis

generalised myokymiamedical dictionary

Widespread myokymia, present in multiple limbs and often the face; of various causes, including Isaac's syndrome, uraemia, thyrotoxicosis and gold toxicity (gold-myokymia syndrome).

(05 Mar 2000)

generalised paralysismedical dictionary

Preferred term: global paralysis

generalised pustular psoriasis of Zambuschmedical dictionary

Preferred term: pustular psoriasis

generalised seizuremedical dictionary

Preferred term: tonic-clonic seizure

generalised seizuresmedical dictionary

Seizures characterised by generalised cerebral onset clinically and on EEG.

(05 Mar 2000)

generalised Shwartzman phenomenonmedical dictionary

When both the primary injection of endotoxin-containing filtrate and the secondary injection are given intravenously 24 hours apart, the animal usually dies within 24 hours after the second inoculation; the characteristic lesions in the rabbit include widespread haemorrhages in the lung, liver, and other organs and bilateral cortical necrosis of the kidney. This reaction has no immunological basis.

Synonyms: Sanarelli phenomenon, Sanarelli-Shwartzman phenomenon.

(05 Mar 2000)

generalised small bowel diseasemedical dictionary

<radiology> Hypoproteinaemia, sprue, Whipple

(12 Dec 1998)

generalised tetanusmedical dictionary

The most common type of tetanus, often with trismus as its initial manifestation; the muscles of the head, neck, trunk and limbs become persistently contracted, and then painful paroxysmal tonic contractions (tetanic seizures) are superimposed; the high mortality rate (50%) is due to asphyxia or cardiac failure.

(05 Mar 2000)

generalised tonic-clonic epilepsymedical dictionary
generalised tonic-clonic seizuremedical dictionary

Preferred term: tonic-clonic seizure

generalised vacciniamedical dictionary

Secondary lesions of the skin following vaccination which may occur in subjects with previously healthy skin but are more common in the case of traumatised skin, especially in the case of eczema (eczema vaccinatum). In the latter instance, generalised vaccinia may result from mere contact with a vaccinated person. Secondary vaccinial lesions may also occur following transfer of virus from the vaccination to another site by means of the fingers.

(05 Mar 2000)

<specialist>

A general physician or family physician; a physician trained to take care of the majority of nonsurgical diseases, sometimes including obstetrics.

(05 Mar 2000)

generalizationmedical dictionary

1. Rendering or becoming general, diffuse, or widespread, as when a primarily local disease becomes systemic.

2. The reasoning by which a basic conclusion is reached, which applies to different items, each having some common factor.

(05 Mar 2000)

A software company based in Mountain View, California. Products released in 1994 after four years in development include: Telescript - a communications-oriented programming language; Magic Cap - an OOPS designed for PDAs; and a new, third generation GUI. Motorola's Envoy, due for release in the third quarter of 1994, will use Magic Cap as its OS.

What PostScript did for cross-platform, device-independent documents, Telescript aims to do for cross-platform, network-independent messaging. Telescript protects programmers from many of the complexities of network protocols.

Competitors for Magic Cap include Microsoft's Windows for Pens/Winpad, PenPoint, Apple Computer's Newton Intelligence and GEOS by GeoWorks.

MORE.

(01 Feb 1995)

General National Vocational Qualificationeducation dictionary

A practical qualification which is both a route to Further Education and a preparation for employment in a broad vocational area. There are two levels of GNVQ - Intermediate and Advanced.

See: Advanced Vocational Certificate of Education

Acronym: GNVQ

(14 Jan 2009)

General Packet Radio Servicecomputing dictionary

<communications> (GPRS) A GSM data transmission technique that does not set up a continuous channel from a portable terminal for the transmission and reception of data, but transmits and receives data in packets. It makes very efficient use of available radio spectrum, and users pay only for the volume of data sent and received.

See also: packet radio.

Acronym: GPRS

(01 Apr 1999)

general paresismedical dictionary

A part of late ( tertiary ) syphilis a decade or more after the initial infection, due to chronic inflammation of the covering and substance of the brain (meningoencephalitis) which results in progressive dementia and generalised paralysis.

(12 Dec 1998)

general peritonitismedical dictionary

Peritonitis throughout the peritoneal cavity.

Synonyms: diffuse peritonitis.

(05 Mar 2000)

general physiologymedical dictionary

<study>

The science of the functions or vital processes common to almost all living things, whether animal or plant, as opposed to aspects of physiology peculiar to particular types of animals or plants, or to the application of physiology to applied sciences such as medicine and agriculture.

(05 Mar 2000)

general practicemedical dictionary

A term for physicians who care for all types of medical problems, including internal medical, paediatric, obstetrical, and surgical diseases. Post-graduate training for general practitioners was limited and there was no specialty certification; the field has been replaced by more extensively trained family practitioners.

(05 Mar 2000)

general practice, dentalmedical dictionary

Nonspecialised dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.

(12 Dec 1998)

general practitionermedical dictionary

(GP) a medically qualified doctor who practices general medicine as a family practitioner. Some GPs are also qualified in specialised medicine and in Malaysia, the majority of specialists also practise as general practitioners although the trend may be changing.

(16 Dec 1997)

General Professional Trainingeducation dictionary

<medical training>

This entry has no definition yet.

Acronym: GPT

(14 Jan 2009)

General Protection Failurecomputing dictionary

(GPF, or General Protection Fault) An addressing error, caught by the processor's memory protection hardware, that cannot be attributed to any expected condition such as a page fault.

(01 Mar 1995)

General Protection Faultcomputing dictionary

Preferred term: General Protection Failure

General Public Licencecomputing dictionary

<spelling> It's spelled "General Public License".

(In the UK, "licence" is a noun and "license" is a verb (like "advice"/"advise") but in the US both are spelled "license").

(01 Mar 1995)

General Public Licensecomputing dictionary

<legal> (GPL, note US spelling) The licence applied to most software from the Free Software Foundation and the GNU project and other authors who choose to use it.

The licences for most software are designed to prevent users from sharing or changing it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee the freedom to share and change free software - to make sure the software is free for all its users. The GPL is designed to make sure that anyone can distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if they wish); that they receive source code or can get it if they want; that they can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that they know they can do these things. The GPL forbids anyone to deny others these rights or to ask them to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for those who distribute copies of the software or modify it.

See also: General Public Virus.

(01 Mar 1994)

General Public Viruscomputing dictionary

<software, legal> A pejorative name for some versions of the GNU project copyleft or General Public License (GPL), which requires that any tools or application programs incorporating copylefted code must be source-distributed on the same terms as GNU code. Thus it is alleged that the copyleft "infects" software generated with GNU tools, which may in turn infect other software that reuses any of its code.

Copyright law limits the scope of the GPL to "programs textually incorporating significant amounts of GNU code" so GPL is only passed on if actual GNU source is transmitted. This used to be the case with the Bison parser skeleton until its licence was fixed.

MORE.

Acronym: GPV

(01 Apr 1999)

General Purpose Graphic Languagecomputing dictionary

["A General Purpose Graphic Language", H.E. Kulsrud, CACM 11(4) (Apr 1968)].

(02 Feb 2009)

General Purpose Interface Buscomputing dictionary

Preferred term: IEEE 488

General Purpose Languagecomputing dictionary

(GPL) An ALGOL 60 variant with user-definable types and operators.

[Sammet 1969, p. 195].

["The GPL Language", J.V. Garwick et al, TER-05, CDC, Palo Alto 1969].

(02 Feb 2009)

General Purpose Macro-generatorcomputing dictionary

<programming language>

(GPM) An early text-processing language similar to TRAC, implemented on the Atlas 2 by Christopher Strachey.

["A General Purpose Macrogenerator", C. Strachey, Computer J 8(3):225-241, Oct 1965].

Acronym: GPM

(01 Nov 2006)

General Recursion Theoremcomputing dictionary

<mathematics> Cantor's theorem, originally stated for ordinals, which extends inductive proof to recursive construction. The proof is by pasting together "attempts" (partial solutions).

[Better explanation?]

(01 Mar 1995)

general somatic afferent columnmedical dictionary

In the embryo, a column of gray matter in the hindbrain and spinal cord, represented in the adult by the sensory nuclei of the trigeminal nerve and relay cells in the dorsal horn.

(05 Mar 2000)

general somatic efferent columnmedical dictionary

A column of gray matter in the embryo, represented in the adult by the nuclei of the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, and hypoglossal nerves and by motor neurones of the ventral horn of the spinal cord.

(05 Mar 2000)

general stimulantmedical dictionary

A stimulant that affects the entire body.

(05 Mar 2000)

general surgeonmedical dictionary

<specialist>

A physician specialist expert in the surgical management of disease.

(27 Sep 1997)

general surgerymedical dictionary

<specialty>

A surgical specialty that involves largely the surgical management of diseases of the bowel, gallbladder, stomach and other digestive organs.

(27 Sep 1997)

general transductionmedical dictionary

Transduction in which the transducing bacteriophage is able to transfer any gene of the donor bacterium.

(05 Mar 2000)

general tuberculosismedical dictionary

Preferred term: miliary tuberculosis

general visceral afferent columnmedical dictionary

A column of gray matter in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the embryo, developing into the nucleus of the solitary tract and relay cells of the spinal cord.

(05 Mar 2000)

general visceral efferent columnmedical dictionary

A column of gray matter in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the embryo, represented in the adult by the dorsal nucleus of the vagus, the superior and inferior salivatory and Edinger-Westphal nuclei and the visceral motor neurones of the spinal cord.

(05 Mar 2000)

Generative; producing; especially.

<geometry> .

Acting as a generant.

Origin: L. Generans, p. Pr. Of generare.

1. That which generates.

2. <geometry> A generatrix.

(01 Mar 1998)

To produce something according to an algorithm or program or set of rules, or as a (possibly unintended) side effect of the execution of an algorithm or program.

The opposite of parse.

(01 Mar 1995)

1. To beget; to procreate; to propagate; to produce (a being similar to the parent); to engender; as, every animal generates its own species.

2. To cause to be; to bring into life.

3. To originate, especially by a vital or chemical process; to produce; to cause. "Whatever generates a quantity of good chyle must likewise generate milk." (Arbuthnot)

4. <mathematics> To trace out, as a line, figure, or solid, by the motion of a point or a magnitude of inferior order.

Origin: L. Generatus, p. P. Of generare to generate, fr. Genus. See Genus, Gender.

(01 Mar 1998)

generated occlusal pathmedical dictionary

A registration of the path's of movement of the occlusal surfaces of mandibular teeth on a plastic or abrasive surface attached to the maxillary arch.

See: functional chew-in record.

(05 Mar 2000)

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An attempt to classify the degree of sophistication of programming languages.

See First generation language -- Fifth generation language.

(01 Mar 1995)

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1. The act of generating or begetting; procreation, as of animals.

2. Origination by some process, mathematical, chemical, or vital; production; formation; as, the generation of sounds, of gases, of curves, etc.

3. That which is generated or brought forth; progeny; offspiring.

4. A single step or stage in the succession of natural descent; a rank or remove in genealogy. Hence: The body of those who are of the same genealogical rank or remove from an ancestor; the mass of beings living at one period; also, the average lifetime of man, or the ordinary period of time at which one rank follows another, or father is succeeded by child, usually assumed to be one third of a century; an age. "This is the book of the generations of Adam." (Gen. V. 1) "Ye shall remain there [in Babylon] many years, and for a long season, namely, seven generations." (Baruch vi. 3) "All generations and ages of the Christian church." (Hooker)

5. Race; kind; family; breed; stock. "Thy mother's of my generation; what's she, if I be a dog?" (Shak)

6. <geometry> The formation or production of any geometrical magnitude, as a line, a surface, a solid, by the motion, in accordance with a mathematical law, of a point or a magnitude; as, the generation of a line or curve by the motion of a point, of a surface by a line, a sphere by a semicircle, etc.

7. <biology> The aggregate of the functions and phenomene which attend reproduction.

There are four modes of generation in the animal kingdom: scissiparity or by fissiparous generation, gemmiparity or by budding, germiparity or by germs, and oviparity or by ova.

<biology> Alternate generation, the fancied production of living organisms without previously existing parents from inorganic matter, or from decomposing organic matter, a notion which at one time had many supporters; abiogenesis.

Origin: OE. Generacioun, F. Generation, fr.L. Generatio.

(01 Mar 1998)

generationalmedical dictionary

Pertaining to generations, i.e., the discrete staging in genealogical descent.

(05 Mar 2000)

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generation effectmedical dictionary

Variation in health status arising from the different causal factors of disease to which each successive generation born is exposed as it passes through life.

(05 Mar 2000)

generation timemedical dictionary

<cell biology> Time taken for a cell population to double in numbers and thus equivalent to the average length of the cell cycle.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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Pertaining to the process of generating.

(05 Mar 2000)

generative empathymedical dictionary

The inner experience of sharing in and comprehending the momentary psychologic state of another person.

(05 Mar 2000)

1. One who, or that which, generates, begets, causes, or produces.

2. An apparatus in which vapor or gas is formed from a liquid or solid by means of heat or chemical process, as a steam boiler, gas retort, or vessel for generating carbonic acid gas, etc.

3. The principal sound or sounds by which others are produced; the fundamental note or root of the common chord.

Synonyms: generating tone.

Origin: L.

(01 Mar 1998)

generator potentialmedical dictionary

Local depolarisation of the membrane potential at the end of a sensory neurone in graded response to the strength of a stimulus applied to the associated receptor organ, e.g., a pacinian corpuscle; if the generator potential becomes large enough (because the stimulus is at least of threshold strength), it causes excitation at the nearest node of Ranvier and a propagated action potential.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Origin: L.

<geometry> That which generates; the point, or the mathematical magnitude, which, by its motion, generates another magnitude, as a line, surface, or solid.

Synonyms: describent.

(01 Mar 1998)

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gene rearrangementmedical dictionary

A structural alteration of a chromosome that causes a change in the orderof its loci.

(09 Oct 1997)

gene rearrangement, alpha-chain T-cell antigen receptormedical dictionary
gene rearrangement, beta-chain T-cell antigen receptormedical dictionary
gene rearrangement, b-lymphocytemedical dictionary

Ordered rearrangement of b-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the immunoglobulin chains, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the immature b-lymphocyte.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene rearrangement, b-lymphocyte, heavy chainmedical dictionary

Ordered rearrangement of b-lymphocyte variable gene regions thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the immature b-lymphocyte.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene rearrangement, b-lymphocyte, light chainmedical dictionary

Ordered rearrangement of b-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda light chains, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the immature b-lymphocyte.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene rearrangement, delta-chain T-cell antigen receptormedical dictionary
gene rearrangement, gamma-chain T-cell antigen receptormedical dictionary
gene rearrangement, t-lymphocytemedical dictionary
gene redundancymedical dictionary

A situation in which many copies of the same gene exist in a genome.

(09 Oct 1997)

gene regulationmedical dictionary

The DNA and protein interactions in a gene that determine the temporal and spatial modes of expression as well as the amplitude of expression.

(14 Nov 1997)

gene regulatory proteinmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> Any protein that interacts with DNA sequences of a gene and controls its transcription.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

A drug not protected by a trademark. Also, the scientific name as opposed to the proprietary, brand name.

(16 Dec 1997)

1. <biology> Pertaining to a genus or kind; relating to a genus, as distinct from a species, or from another genus; as, a generic description; a generic difference; a generic name.

2. Very comprehensive; pertaining or appropriate to large classes or their characteristics; opposed to specific.

Origin: L. Genus, generis, race, kind: cf. F. Generique. See Gender.

(01 Mar 1998)

gene regulation, gene regulatory protein, generic < Prev | Next > generically, Generic Array Logic

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With regard to a genus, or an extensive class; as, an animal generically distinct from another, or two animals or plants generically allied.

(01 Mar 1998)

Generic Array Logiccomputing dictionary

<computer hardware, integrated circuit> (GAL) A newer kind of Programmable Array Logic based on EEPROM storage cells, been pioneered by Lattice. GALs can be erased and reprogrammed and usually replace a whole set of different PALs (hence the name).

Acronym: GAL

(01 Mar 1995)

Generic Expert System Toolcomputing dictionary

<artificial intelligence> (GEST) An expert system shell for Symbolics Lisp machine, with frames, forward chaining, backward chaining and fuzzy logic; written by John Gilmore(?) at GA Tech.

Current version: 4.0, as of 01 Mar 1995.

FTP.

(01 Mar 1995)

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generic identifiercomputing dictionary

<programming language>

<text> A string constituting the name of a element in an SGML document.

Acronym: GI

(01 Jun 2001)

<computer programming> The possibility for a language to provided parameterised modules or types. E.g. List(of:Integer) or List(of:People).

(01 Feb 1996)

generic markupcomputing dictionary

<text> In computerised document preparation, a method of adding information to the text indicating the logical components of a document, such as paragraphs, headers or footnotes. SGML is an example of such a system. Specific instructions for layout of the text on the page do not appear in the markup.

(01 Feb 1996)

generic namemedical dictionary

1. In chemistry, a noun that indicates the class or type of a single compound; e.g., salt, saccharide (sugar), hexose, alcohol, aldehyde, lactone, acid, amine, alkane, steroid, vitamin. "Class" is more appropriate and more often used than is "generic."

2. In the pharmaceutical and commercial fields, a misnomer for nonproprietary name.

3. In the biologic sciences, the first part of the scientific name (Latin binary combination or binomial) of an organism; written with an initial capital letter and in italics. In bacteriology, the species name consists of two parts (comprising one name): the generic name and the specific epithet; in other biologic disciplines, the species name is regarded as being composed of two names: the generic name and the specific name.

(05 Mar 2000)

generic programmingcomputing dictionary

<computer programming> A programming technique which aims to make programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody non-traditional kinds of polymorphism; ordinary programs are obtained from them by suitably instantiating their parameters. In contrast with normal programs, the parameters of a generic programs are often quite rich in structure. For example they may be other programs, types or type constructors or even programming paradigms.

(01 Mar 1997)

Generic Routing Encapsulationcomputing dictionary

<networking, protocol> (GRE) A protocol which allows an arbitrary network protocol A to be transmitted over any other arbitrary network protocol B, by encapsulating the packets of A within GRE packets, which in turn are contained within packets of B.

Defined in RFC 1701 and RFC 1702 (GRE over IP).

Acronym: GRE

(01 Apr 1998)

Generic Security Service Application Programming Interfacecomputing dictionary

<security, computer programming> (GSS-API) An application level interface (API) to system security services. It provides a generic interface to services which may be provided by a variety of different security mechanisms. Vanilla GSS-API supports security contexts between two entities (known as "principals").

GSS-API is a draft internet standard which is being developed in the Common Authentication Technology Working Group (cat-wg) of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

Initial specifications for GSS-API appeared in RFC 1508 and RFC 1509. Subsequent revisions appeared in several draft standards documents.

MORE.

Acronym: GSS-API

(01 Feb 1996)

generic skillseducation dictionary

<learning theory> Also referred to as transferable skills, employability or life-skills and generally supposed to contribute to lifelong learning.

Can change over time and will vary with different government priorities but generally encompasses the following elements: reading, writing and arithmetic, listening, speaking, thinking, time and project management information skills, design and presentation, problem identification, definition and solving, personal knowledge.

See: employability skills, graduate skills

(08 Mar 2006)

<computer programming> A software mechanism that allows a 16-bit Windows application to load and call a Win32 DLL under Windows NT and Windows 95.

See also: flat thunk, universal thunk.

(01 Apr 1999)

generic type variablecomputing dictionary

<computer programming> (Also known as a "schematic type variable"). Different occurrences of a generic type variable in a type expression may be instantiated to different types. Thus, in the expression

let id x = x in (id True, id 1)

id's type is (for all a: a -> a). The universal quantifier "for all a:" means that a is a generic type variable. For the two uses of id, a is instantiated to Bool and Int. Compare this with

let id x = x in let f g = (g True, g 1) in f id

This looks similar but f has no legal Hindley-Milner type. If we say

f :: (a -> b) -> (b, b)

this would permit g's type to be any instance of (a -> b) rather than requiring it to be at least as general as (a -> b). Furthermore, it constrains both instances of g to have the same result type whereas they do not. The type variables a and b in the above are implicitly quantified at the top level:

f :: for all a: for all b: (a -> b) -> (b, b)

so instantiating them (removing the quantifiers) can only be done once, at the top level. To correctly describe the type of f requires that they be locally quantified:

f :: ((for all a: a) -> (for all b: b)) -> (c, d)

which means that each time g is applied, a and b may be instantiated differently. f's actual argument must have a type at least as general as ((for all a: a) -> (for all b: b)), and may not be some less general instance of this type. Type variables c and d are still implicitly quantified at the top level and, now that g's result type is a generic type variable, any types chosen for c and d are guaranteed to be instances of it.

This type for f does not express the fact that b only needs to be at least as general as the types c and d. For example, if c and d were both Bool then any function of type (for all a: a -> Bool) would be a suitable argument to f but it would not match the above type for f.

(03 Feb 2009)

Located in the nucleus of the cell, genes contain hereditary information that is transferred from cell to cell.

(09 Oct 1997)

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Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the abelson murine leukaemia virus (ab-mulv). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukaemia.

(12 Dec 1998)

Tumour suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (apc stands for adenomatous polyposis coli) and gardner's syndrome, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.

(12 Dec 1998)

Regulatory genes which encode a cyclic AMP receptor protein required for l-arabinose utilization in E. coli. It is an example of positive control or regulation of gene expression in the bacterial operon.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, archaealmedical dictionary

The genetic material of archaea.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, bacterialmedical dictionary

The genetic material of bacteria.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, abl, genes, apc, genes, arac, genes, archaeal < Prev | Next > genes, bcl-1, genes, bcl-2, genes, BRCA1

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genes, bcl-1medical dictionary

The B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, bcl-2medical dictionary

The B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, BRCA1medical dictionary

Tumour suppressor genes located on human chromosome 17q12-21. The mutation of these genes is associated with the formation of familial breast and ovarian cancer.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, breast cancer susceptibilitymedical dictionary

Inherited factors that predispose to breast cancer. Put otherwise, these genes make one more susceptible to the disease and so increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Two of these genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified (and prominently publicised). Several other genes (those for the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden disease, Muir-Torre syndrome, and ataxia-telangiectasia) are also known to predispose to breast cancer. Howeverm, since all of these known breast cancer susceptibility genes together do not account for more than a minor fraction (1/5th at most) of breast cancer that clusters in families, it is clear that more breast cancer genes remain to be discovered. See related entries to: BRCA1; BRCA2; Breast cancer, familial.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, bacterial, genes, bcl-1, genes, bcl-2, genes, BRCA1 < Prev | Next > genes, cdc, genes, dcc, genes, dominant

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Genes that code for proteins that regulate the cell division cycle. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of mitosis by activating the p34cdc2 protein (protein p34cdc2).

(12 Dec 1998)

Tumour suppressor genes located in the 18q21-qter region of human chromosome 18. The absence of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (dcc stands for deleted in colorectal cancer). The products of these genes show significant homology to neural cell adhesion molecules and other related cell surface glycoproteins.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, dominantmedical dictionary

Genes that are reflected in the phenotype both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

(12 Dec 1998)

genesee epochmedical dictionary

<geology> The closing subdivision of the Hamilton period in the American Devonian system; so called because the formations of this period crop out in Genesee, new York.

(01 Mar 1998)

DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= gene products, rev), termed the rev-responsive element (rre).

(12 Dec 1998)

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gene sequencingmedical dictionary

Determination of the sequence of nucleotide bases in a strand of DNA.

(14 Nov 1997)

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Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erythroblastosis virus, avian, hence erba) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erba proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (receptors, thyroid hormone). Two distinct c-erba proto-oncogenes have been identified, erba-alpha and erba-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. Erba-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. Erba-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erba oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbb gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

(12 Dec 1998)

Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erbb) originally isolated from, or related to, the avian erythroblastosis virus (aev). These genes code for the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) family of receptors which is important in the control of normal cell proliferation and in the pathogenesis of human cancer. The genes include erbb-1 (genes, erbb-1), erbb-2 (genes, erbb-2), and erbb-3, all of which show abnormalities of expression in various human neoplasms.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, erbb-1medical dictionary

Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erbb) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus (aev). The oncogene v-erbb arose by insertion of viral DNA into the c-erbb-1 proto-oncogene resulting in expression of a protein lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. V-erbb is the primary transforming gene of aev and abrogates the requirements for other mitogens. The proto-oncogene c-erbb-1 codes for the protein epidermal growth factor receptor (epidermal growth factor receptor-urogastrone). Overexpression of the gene occurs in a wide range of tumours, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbb-1 gene is located at 7p12-13 on the short arm of chromosome 7.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, erbb-2medical dictionary

Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erbb) related to the c-erbb-1 gene and identified by probes from c-erbb-1 or its avian viral homologue v-erbb. The proto-oncogene erbb-2 (c-erbb-2) codes for a protein that has structural features indicative of a growth factor receptor with close similarity to the epidermal growth factor (egf) receptor. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with adenocarcinomas and with poor prognosis in breast carcinomas. The human c-erbb-2 gene is located at 17p12-21 on the short arm of chromosome 17.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene sequencing, genes, erba, genes, erbb, genes, erbb-1 < Prev | Next > genes, fms, genes, fos, genes, fungal

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Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fms) originally isolated from the susan mcdonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (sm-fesv). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for a protein (csf-1) that is a member of the transmembrane tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor family. The human c-fms gene is located at 5q33.3 on the long arm of chromosome 5.

(12 Dec 1998)

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Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the finkel-biskis-jinkins (fbj-msv) and finkel-biskis-reilly (fbr-msv) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into fbj-msv or fbr-msv induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, fungalmedical dictionary

The genetic material of fungi. It includes mating type genes of saccharomyces cerevisiae.

(12 Dec 1998)

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DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. Gag is short for group-specific antigen.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, helminthmedical dictionary

The hereditary material of helminths.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, homeoboxmedical dictionary

Highly conserved DNA sequences which have been identified in specific gene transcripts ranging from those of drosophila melanogaster to mouse and human. Homeobox genes function, in part, to generate DNA-binding proteins with an evolutionary conserved approximately 60-residue sequence (homeodomain proteins).

(12 Dec 1998)

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An expert system developed by Electricite de France and commercialised by STERIA (Paris).

(03 Feb 2009)

Relating to generation.

(05 Mar 2000)

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genesial cyclemedical dictionary

The reproductive period of a woman's life.

(05 Mar 2000)

genes, immediate-earlymedical dictionary

Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, immunoglobulinmedical dictionary

Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolised l-v (variable), j (joining) and c (constant); ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (d) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during b lymphocyte maturation.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, insectmedical dictionary

The hereditary material of insects.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, intracisternal a-particlemedical dictionary

A family of retrovirus-like genetic elements coding for virus-like particles found regularly in early rodent embryos (2-cell to blastocyst stage), but which, under certain circumstances such as DNA hypomethylation, are transcribed in a wide variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.

(12 Dec 1998)

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<study>

The branch of science concerned with generation or reproduction.

Origin: G. Genesis, generation, + logos, study

(05 Mar 2000)

The beginning of a process.

(16 Dec 1997)

Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (asv 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into asv-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumourgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, lethalmedical dictionary

Genes which result in the premature death of the organism; dominant lethal genes kill heterozygotes, whereas recessive lethal genes kill only homozygotes.

(12 Dec 1998)

Tumour suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (mcc stands for mutated in colorectal cancer).

(12 Dec 1998)

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Genes responsible for multidrug resistance resulting from their overexpression in mammalian cells. Mammalian p-glycoproteins are encoded by small mdr gene familes. The human multidrug resistance 1 (mdr1) gene responds to environmental stress including various anticancer agents. It is a major determinant in the development of resistance to a large number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (biochem biophys res commun 1994;199(3):1428-35; cancer res 1994:54(6):1536-41)

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, MHC class Imedical dictionary

Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., b loci (chicken), dla (dog), gpla (guinea pig), h-2 (mouse), rt-1 (rat), HLA-a, -b, and -c class I genes of man.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, MHC class IImedical dictionary

Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-d region in humans and in the I region in mice.

(12 Dec 1998)

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Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the moloney murine sarcoma virus (mo-msv). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal a-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

(12 Dec 1998)

Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumourigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

(12 Dec 1998)

DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nef is short for negative factor.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, neurofibromatosis 1medical dictionary

Tumour suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 17 in the region 17q11.2. Mutation of these genes is thought to cause neurofibromatosis 1.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, neurofibromatosis 2medical dictionary

Tumour suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes neurofibromatosis 2.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, nitrogen fixationmedical dictionary

Regulatory and structural genes present in certain bacteria, algae and fungi that control the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable compounds; include nif structural genes (e.g., nifd, nifh) for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase as well as regulator genes nifa, nifb, ntra, ntrb, ntrc. Some are responsible for regulating transcription of genes involved in the assimilation of poor nitrogen sources in enteric bacteria.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, overlappingmedical dictionary

Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.

(12 Dec 1998)

Tumour suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies.

(12 Dec 1998)

Tumour suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, plantmedical dictionary

The hereditary material of plants.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene splicingmedical dictionary

A procedure by which one DNA molecule or fragment can be attached to another.

(14 Nov 1997)

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DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, protozoanmedical dictionary

The genetic material of protozoa.

(12 Dec 1998)

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DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HTLV-I and HTLV-II. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of px but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called px.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, rag-1medical dictionary

Genes involved in activating the enzyme vdj recombinase. Rag-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.

(12 Dec 1998)

Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from harvey (h-ras, ha-ras, rash) and kirsten (k-ras, ki-ras, rask) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both h-ras and k-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related n-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, recessivemedical dictionary

Genes that are reflected in the phenotype only in the homozygous state.

(12 Dec 1998)

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genes, regulatormedical dictionary

Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for proteins (repressors or activators) which regulate the genetic transcription of the structural genes and/or regulatory genes.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, reportermedical dictionary

Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, retinoblastomamedical dictionary

Tumour suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kD to 115 kD. One copy of the wild-type rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.

(12 Dec 1998)

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DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Rev is short for regulator of virion.

(12 Dec 1998)

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Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the rous sarcoma virus (rsv). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, structuralmedical dictionary

Genes that code for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural functions of cells. They include developmental and differentiated genes.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, structural, bacterialmedical dictionary

DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of bacterial cells.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, structural, fungalmedical dictionary

DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of fungal cells.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, structural, helminthmedical dictionary

DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of helminthic cells.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, structural, insectmedical dictionary

DNA sequences that code for RNA and for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of insect cells.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, structural, neoplasmmedical dictionary

DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of neoplastic cells.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, structural, plantmedical dictionary

DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of plant cells.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, structural, protozoanmedical dictionary

DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of protozoan cells.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, structural, viralmedical dictionary

DNA or RNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of viral cells.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, suppressormedical dictionary

Genes that inhibit expression of a previous mutation. They allow the wild-type phenotype to be wholly or partially restored.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, suppressor, tumourmedical dictionary

Genes that inhibit expression of the tumourigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumour suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and deregulated growth is possible.

American spelling: genes, suppressor, tumor

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, switchmedical dictionary

Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realised) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, syntheticmedical dictionary

Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesised in vitro.

(12 Dec 1998)

DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, T-cell receptormedical dictionary

DNA sequences, in cells of the t-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The tcr genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see gene rearrangement, t-lymphocyte and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, T-cell receptor alphamedical dictionary

DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the tcr alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of ig genes.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, T-cell receptor betamedical dictionary

DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the tcr beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of ig genes.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, T-cell receptor deltamedical dictionary

DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, T-cell receptor gammamedical dictionary

DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organised similarly to the tcr beta-chain locus.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene supressionmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> The halting of abnormal gene activity which results in the restoration of lost or impaired genetic function.

(09 Oct 1997)

DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, viralmedical dictionary

The hereditary material of viruses, consisting in all DNA and some RNA viruses of a single molecule of nucleic acid, and in some RNA viruses of several separate pieces of RNA.

(12 Dec 1998)

DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Vpr is short for viral protein r, where r is undefined.

(12 Dec 1998)

DNA sequences that form the coding region for the HIV-1 regulatory protein vpu (viral protein u) that greatly increases the export of virus particles from infected cells. The vpu genes are not present in HIV-2 or siv.

(12 Dec 1998)

genes, wilms' tumourmedical dictionary

Tumour suppressor genes located in the 11p13 region on the short arm of human chromosome 11. The absence of these genes is associated with the formation of wilms' tumour.

American spelling: genes, wilms' tumor

(12 Dec 1998)

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<molecular biology> A situation in which a cell or organism stops expressing one gene orgene group and switches to expressing a different gene or group of genes.

(09 Oct 1997)

gene synthesismedical dictionary

<molecular biology> The complete synthesis of a gene using a DNA synthesiser (gene machine), or the assembly of oligonucleotides so synthesised into a synthetic gene, as opposed to cloning.

(14 Nov 1997)

gene targetingmedical dictionary

The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.

(12 Dec 1998)

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gene testingmedical dictionary

Testing a sample of blood (or another fluid or tissue) for evidence of a gene. The evidence can be biochemical, chromosomal, or genetic. The aim is to learn whether a gene for a disease is present or absent.

(12 Dec 1998)

gene therapymedical dictionary

<molecular biology> Treatment of a disease caused by malfunction of a gene, by stably transfecting the cells of the organism with the normal gene.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

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genethlialogymedical dictionary

Divination as to the destinies of one newly born; the act or art of casting nativities; astrology.

Origin: Gr. Astrology; birth + discourse.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<biology> Pertaining to reproduction or to birth or origin.

(07 May 1998)

<biology> Pertaining to, concerned with, or determined by, the genesis of anything, or its natural mode of production or development.

See: genesis

(27 Oct 1998)

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genetic algorithmcomputing dictionary

(GA) An evolutionary algorithm which generates each individual from some encoded form known as a "chromosome" or "genome". Chromosomes are combined or mutated to breed new individuals. "Crossover", the kind of recombination of chromosomes found in sexual reproduction in nature, is often also used in GAs. Here, an offspring's chromosome is created by joining segments choosen alternately from each of two parents' chromosomes which are of fixed length.

GAs are useful for multidimensional optimisation problems in which the chromosome can encode the values for the different variables being optimised.

Illinois Genetic Algorithms Laboratory (IlliGAL).

(01 Feb 1995)

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genetic algorithmscomputing dictionary

Preferred term: genetic algorithm

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<biology> In a genetical manner.

(07 May 1998)

genetically significant dosemedical dictionary

<physics, radiobiology> The genetically significant dose is that which, if received by every member of the population, would be expected to produce the same genetic injury to the population as do the actual doses received by the individuals irradiated.

Thus, the genetically significant dose is the dose equivalent to the gonads weighted for the age and sex distribution in those members of the irradiated population expected to have offspring. The genetically significant dose is expressed in sieverts (or rem).

Acronym: GSD

(06 Aug 1998)

genetic amplificationmedical dictionary

A process for producing an increase in pertinent genetic material, particularly for increasing the proportion of plasmid DNA to that of bacterial DNA. Includes the production of extrachromosomal copies of the genes for RNA.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic assimilationmedical dictionary

<genetics> A situation in which a characteristic that is normally expressed only in certain environmental situations becomes fixed in a population so that it no longer requires environmental factors to be expressed.

(07 May 1998)

genetic associationmedical dictionary

The occurrence together in a population, more often than can be readily explained by chance, of two or more traits of which at least one is known to be genetic.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic blockmedical dictionary

<biochemistry, molecular biology> An obstruction in a biochemical pathway caused by a mutation that has crippled production of an enzyme critical to the pathway.

(07 May 1998)

genetic burdenmedical dictionary

The genetic debt due to harmful mutation but as yet undischarged. (In a large population of fixed size every mutation with diminished genetic fitness will eventually become extinct and depending on the details of inheritance and phenotype must be paid for by a fixed number of genetic deaths per mutation, the genetic debt.)

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic carriermedical dictionary

An unaffected heterozygote bearing a usually harmful recessive gene, a cancer that bears a dominant but latent age-dependent trait to have offspring with unbalanced karyotypes.

(05 Mar 2000)

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genetic codemedical dictionary

<molecular biology> Relationship between the sequence of bases in nucleic acid and the order of amino acids in the polypeptide synthesised from it. A sequence of three nucleic acid bases (a triplet) acts as a codeword (codon) for one amino acid.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

genetic colonisationmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> The process of a parasite (such as a virus) inserting genes into a host's genome which cause the host cell to synthesise products that are only useful to the parasite.

(07 May 1998)

genetic complementmedical dictionary

<biology, genetics> The set of chromosomes contained within any one particular cell.

(07 May 1998)

genetic complementationmedical dictionary

<genetics> The reappearance of wild-type characteristics in a cell or organism that has had two distinct mutations on the same chromosome.

Two normal versions of two different mutant genes on different chromosomes affecting the same phenotype which, when inherited together, results in the wild-type phenotype despite the presence of mutant copies of the genes.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic complementation testmedical dictionary

A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.

(12 Dec 1998)

genetic compoundmedical dictionary

Preferred term: compound heterozygote

genetic counselingmedical dictionary

<genetics> The genetic testing of couples who are planning to be parents in which their genomes are evaluated and they are given advice or information from a specialist regarding the likelihood of them having children with genetic diseases or defects.

(07 May 1998)

genetic deathmedical dictionary

Death of the bearer of a gene at any age before generating living offspring. May be compatible with good health and long life.

See: genetic lethal.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic determinantmedical dictionary

Any antigenic determinant or identifying characteristic, particularly those of allotypes.

Synonyms: genetic marker.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic diseasemedical dictionary

<biology, genetics> A disease, such as cystic fibrosis, that has its origin in changes to the genetic material, DNA.

Usually refers to diseases that are inherited in a Mendelian fashion, although noninherited forms of cancer also result from DNA mutation.

(07 May 1998)

genetic disequilibriummedical dictionary

A state in the genetic composition of a population which under selection may be expected to change toward an equilibrium or absorbing state.

(05 Mar 2000)

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genetic distancemedical dictionary

<molecular biology> A way of measuring the amount of evolutionary divergence in two separated populations of a species by counting the number of allelic substitutions per locus that have cropped up in each population.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic diversitymedical dictionary

<genetics> A property of a community of organisms of a certain species, in which members of the community have variations in their chromosomes due to a large number of slightly dissimilar ancestors, this property makes the community in general more resistant to diseases or to changing ecological conditions.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic dominancemedical dictionary

Denoting a pattern of inheritance of an autosomal mendelian trait due to a gene that always manifests itself phenotypically; generally, the phenotype in the homozygote is more severe than in the heterozygote, but details depend on what criterion of phenotyping is used.

Dominance of traits, an expression of the apparent physiologic relationship existing between two or more genes that may occupy the same chromosomal locus (alleles). at a specific locus there are three possible combinations of two allelic genes, A and a: two homozygous (AA and aa) and one heterozygous (Aa). If a heterozygous individual presents only the hereditary characteristic determined by gene A, but not a, A is said to be dominant and a recessive; in this case, AA and Aa, although genotypically distinct, should be phenotypically indistinguishable. If AA, Aa, and aa are distinguishable, each from the others, A and a are codominant.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic driftmedical dictionary

<genetics> The random change of the occurance of a particular gene in a population, genetic drift is thought to be one cause of speciation when a group oforganisms is separated from its parent population.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic engineeringmedical dictionary

<molecular biology, technique> General term covering the use of various experimental techniques to produce molecules of DNA containing new genes or novel combinations of genes, usually for insertion into a host cell for cloning.

(07 May 1998)

genetic engineering technologiesmedical dictionary

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genetic equilibriummedical dictionary

A condition in which the rate of an allele's forward mutation is cancelled out by its rate of reverse mutation.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic femalemedical dictionary

An individual with a normal female karyotype, including two X chromosomes, an individual whose cell nuclei contain Barr sex chromatin bodies, which are normally absent in males.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic fine structuremedical dictionary

The study of genes on the level of their nucleotide sequences and what happens to their molecular structure at that level.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic fingerprintmedical dictionary

Preferred term: fingerprint

genetic fingerprintingmedical dictionary

The process of comparing the nucleotide sequences of different DNA samples to find out if the samples are from the same individual or not. This is often used as a way to investigate crime, for example by comparing samples found at the crime scene with samples from the suspects.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic fitnessmedical dictionary

In a phenotype, the mean number of surviving offspring that it generates in its lifetime, usually expressed as a fraction or percentage of the average genetic fitness of the population.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic fixationmedical dictionary

The increase of the frequency of a gene by genetic drift until no other allele is preserved in a specific finite population.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic heterogeneitymedical dictionary

The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, lipoprotein lipase and polycystic kidney disease.

(12 Dec 1998)

genetic homeostasismedical dictionary

The tendency of a population to reach a point of genetic equilibrium and resist changes.

Origin: Gr. Stasis = stoppage

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic human malemedical dictionary

An individual with a karyotype containing a Y chromosome, an individual whose cell nuclei do not contain Barr sex chromatin bodies, which are normally present in females. Patients with ambiguous sexual development and those with Turner's syndrome are classed as genetic male's or genetic females according to the absence or presence of Barr bodies even though their sex chromosome complement may suggest otherwise.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic identitymedical dictionary

The relatedness of two populations as represented by the percentage of the genes they share.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic inductionmedical dictionary

The triggering of a specific gene by an inducer molecule (which acts directly or indirectly by affecting an RNA polymerase molecule).

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic informationmedical dictionary

The heritable biological information coded in the nucleotide sequences of DNA or RNA (certain viruses), such as in the chromosomes or in plasmids.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic isolatemedical dictionary

Preferred term: isolate

<specialist>

A specialist in genetics.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic lethalmedical dictionary

A disorder that prevents effective reproduction by those affected; e.g., Klinefelter syndrome.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic linkagemedical dictionary

<genetics> The term refers to the fact that certain genes tend to be inherited together, because they are on the same chromosome. Thus parental combinations of characters are found more frequently in offspring than nonparental. Linkage is measured by the percentage recombination between loci, unlinked genes showing 50% recombination.

See: linkage equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

genetic loadmedical dictionary

<genetics> In general terms the decrease in fitness of a population (as a result of selection acting on phenotypes) due to deleterious mutations in the population gene pool. More specifically, the average number of recessive lethal mutations, in the heterozygous state, estimated to be present in the genome of an individual in a population.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

genetic locusmedical dictionary

<genetics> The position of a gene in a linkage map or on a chromosome.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

Preferred term: linkage map

genetic mappingmedical dictionary

Determination of the relative positions of genes on a DNA molecule (chromosome or plasmid) and of the distance, in linkage units or physical units, between them.

(14 Nov 1997)

genetic markermedical dictionary

A gene which has an easily identifiable phenotype so that one can tell apart cells or individuals which have the gene and those which do not have it. Such a gene can also be used as a probe to mark cell nuclei or chromosomes so that they can easily be isolated or identified from other nuclei or chromosomes later.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic markersmedical dictionary

A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.

(12 Dec 1998)

genetic materialmedical dictionary

A gene, a part of a gene, a group of genes, or fragments of many genes, on a molecule of DNA, a fragment of DNA, a group of DNA molecules, or fragments of many DNA molecules. Could refer to anything from a small fragment of DNA to the entire genome of an organism.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic modelmedical dictionary

A formalised conjecture about the behaviour of a heritable structure in which the component terms are intended to have literal interpretation as standard structures of empirical genetics.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic penetrancemedical dictionary

The extent to which a genetically determined condition is expressed in an individual.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic polymorphismmedical dictionary

The occurrence in the same population of multiple discrete alletic states of which at least two have high frequency (conventionally of 1% or more).

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic programmingcomputing dictionary

<computer programming> (GP) A programming technique which extends the genetic algorithm to the domain of whole computer programs. In GP, populations of programs are genetically bred to solve problems. Genetic programming can solve problems of system identification, classification, control, robotics, optimisation, game playing, and pattern recognition.

Starting with a primordial ooze of hundreds or thousands of randomly created programs composed of functions and terminals appropriate to the problem, the population is progressively evolved over a series of generations by applying the operations of Darwinian fitness proportionate reproduction and crossover (sexual recombination).

(01 Mar 1995)

genetic psychologymedical dictionary

<study>

A science dealing with the evolution of behaviour and the relation to each other of the different types of mental activity.

(05 Mar 2000)

genetic recombinationmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> Formation of new combinations of alleles in offspring (viruses, cells or organisms) as a result of exchange of DNA sequences between molecules. It occurs naturally, as in crossing over between homologous chromosomes in meiosis or experimentally, as a result of genetic engineering techniques.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

<study>

The study of the patterns of inheritance of specific traits.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetics based machine learningcomputing dictionary

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genetics, behaviouralmedical dictionary

The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behaviour. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.

American spelling: genetics, behavioral

(12 Dec 1998)

genetics, biochemicalmedical dictionary

A branch of genetics which deals with the chemical structure of the genes and with the mechanisms by which the genes control and regulate the structure and synthesis of proteins.

(12 Dec 1998)

genetic screeningmedical dictionary

The process of testing individuals to find out if they carry genes for certain known genetic diseases, such as sickle cell anaemia.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetics, medicalmedical dictionary

A field of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of any two parents or potential parents.

(12 Dec 1998)

genetics, microbialmedical dictionary

A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.

(12 Dec 1998)

genetics, populationmedical dictionary

The study of the genetic composition of populations and of the effects of factors such as selection, population size, mutation, migration, and genetic drift on the frequencies of various genotypes and phenotypes.

(12 Dec 1998)

genetic techniquesmedical dictionary

Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.

(12 Dec 1998)

genetic testingmedical dictionary

Preferred term: DNA diagnostics

genetic toxicologymedical dictionary

<study>

This is the study of chemicals which can damage the genetic structure of living organisms (including humans) and thus cause problems such as mutations, cancer and birth defects.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic transformationmedical dictionary

<molecular biology> Genetic change brought about by the introduction of exogenous DNA into a cell.

See: transformation, germ line transformation, transfection.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

genetic variancemedical dictionary

Within a population, the measure of how much of the variation of a particular phenotype is due to genotypic variation (as opposed to environmental factors.

An example might be the height of a human as determined by genes inherited from the human's parents.

See: environmental variance.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic vectorsmedical dictionary

Plasmids, bacteriophages, or viruses used during recombinant DNA techniques that transport foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain a genetic marker to facilitate their selective recognition.

(12 Dec 1998)

genetotrophicmedical dictionary

Relating to inherited individual distinctions in nutritional requirements.

Origin: G. Genesis, origin, + trophe, nourishment

(05 Mar 2000)

gene transfermedical dictionary

<molecular biology> General tem for the insertion of foreign genes into a cell or organism. Synonymous with transfection.

This entry appears with permission from the Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology

(11 Mar 2008)

gene translocationmedical dictionary

The movement of a gene fragment from one chromosomal location to another, which often alters or abolishes expression.

(09 Oct 1997)

genetic variance, genetic vectors, genetotrophic, gene transfer < Prev | Next > genette, geneva, Geneva Convention

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1. <zoology> One of several species of small Carnivora of the genus Genetta, allied to the civets, but having the scent glands less developed, and without a pouch.

The common genet (Genetta vulgaris) of Southern Europe, Asia Minor, and North Africa, is dark gray, spotted with black. The long tail is banded with black and white. The Cape genet (G. Felina), and the berbe (G. Pardina), are related African species.

2. The fur of the common genet (Genetta vulgaris); also, any skin dressed in imitation of this fur.

Origin: F. Genette, Sp. Gineta, fr. Ar. Jarnei.

(01 Mar 1998)

A strongly alcoholic liquor, flavoured with juniper berries; made in Holland; Holland gin; Hollands.

Origin: F. Genievre juniper, juniper berry, gin, OF. Geneivre juniper, fr. L. Juniperus the juniper tree: cf. D. Jenever, fr. F. Genievre. See Juniper, and cf. Gin a liquor.

The chief city of Switzerland. Geneva Bible, a translation of the Bible into English, made and published by English refugees in Geneva (Geneva, 1560; London, 1576). It was the first English Bible printed in Roman type instead of the ancient black letter, the first which recognised the division into verses, and the first which ommited the Apocrypha. In form it was a small quarto, and soon superseded the large folio of Cranmer's translation. Called also Genevan Bible. Geneva convention, a red Greek cross on a white ground; the flag and badge adopted in the Geneva convention.

(01 Mar 1998)

Geneva Conventionmedical dictionary

An international agreement formed at meetings in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1864 and 1906, relating (among medical subjects) to the safeguarding of the wounded in battle, of those having the care of them, and of the buildings in which they are being treated. The direct outcome of the first of these meetings was the establishment of the Red Cross Society.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Geneva lens measuremedical dictionary

A device for measuring the radii of the curvature of a spectacle lens.

Synonyms: lens clock.

Origin: Geneva, Switzerland

(05 Mar 2000)

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Gengou phenomenonmedical dictionary

Geneva Convention, Geneva lens measure, Gengou, Octave < Prev | Next > genial, genial tubercle, genian, -genic

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1. Contributing to, or concerned in, propagation or production; generative; procreative; productive. "The genial bed." "Creator Venus, genial power of love." (Dryden)

2. Contributing to, and sympathizing with, the enjoyment of life; sympathetically cheerful and cheering; jovial and inspiring joy or happiness; exciting pleasure and sympathy; enlivening; kindly; as, she was of a cheerful and genial disposition. "So much I feel my genial spirits droop." (Milton)

3. Belonging to one's genius or natural character; native; natural; inborn. "Natural incapacity and genial indisposition." (Sir T. Browne)

4. Denoting or marked with genius belonging to the higher nature. "Men of genius have often attached the highest value to their less genial works." (Hare) Genial gods, the powers supposed to preside over marriage and generation.

Origin: L. Genialis: cf. OF. Genial. See Genius.

<anatomy> Same as Genian.

(01 Mar 1998)

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genial tuberclemedical dictionary

Preferred term: mental spine

Geneva lens measure, Gengou, Octave, Gengou phenomenon, genial < Prev | Next > genian, -genic, -genically, genicula

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<anatomy> Of or pertaining to the chin; mental; as, the genian prominence.

Origin: Gr. Chin; akin to under jaw. Cf. Chin.

(01 Mar 1998)

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<suffix>

A combining form or suffix used to form adjectives meaning forming, producing (carcinogenic; pathogenic), well suited to (photogenic; radiogenic), produced by (iatrogenic).

Origin: G. Genos, birth

(11 Feb 2009)

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<suffix>

A suffix used to form adverbs from words terminating with -genic.

(06 Feb 2009)

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Plural of geniculum.

(05 Mar 2000)

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Commonly used to mean genual.

(05 Mar 2000)

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genicular arteriesmedical dictionary

-genic, -genically, genicula, genicular < Prev | Next > geniculate, geniculate bodies, geniculate body

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Bent abruptly like a knee joint.

(09 Oct 1997)

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geniculate bodiesmedical dictionary

Part of the diencephalon inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal thalamus. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the optic tract to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the auditory cortex.

(12 Dec 1998)

geniculate bodymedical dictionary

genicular arteries, geniculate, geniculate bodies < Prev | Next > geniculated, geniculate ganglion

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Preferred term: geniculate

geniculate ganglionmedical dictionary

The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brainstem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.

(12 Dec 1998)

geniculate neuralgiamedical dictionary

<symptom>

A severe paroxysmal lancinating pain deep in the ear, on the anterior wall of the external meatus, and on a small area just in front of the pinna.

Synonyms: geniculate otalgia, Hunt's neuralgia, neuralgia facialis vera.

(05 Mar 2000)

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geniculate otalgiamedical dictionary

<symptom>

Preferred term: geniculate neuralgia

geniculate zostermedical dictionary

Preferred term: herpes zoster oticus

geniculatus lateralis nucleusmedical dictionary

Preferred term: lateral geniculate body

geniculocalcarine radiationmedical dictionary

Preferred term: optic radiation

geniculocalcarine tractmedical dictionary

Preferred term: optic radiation

1. A small genu or angular kneelike structure.

2. A knotlike structure.

Origin: L. Dim. Of genu, knee

(05 Mar 2000)

geniculum canalis facialismedical dictionary

Preferred term: geniculum of facial canal

geniculum nervi facialismedical dictionary

Preferred term: geniculum of facial nerve

geniculum of facial canalmedical dictionary

<anatomy> The bend in the facial canal linking the medial and lateral crura of the horizontal port of the canal and corresponding to the location of the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve.

Synonyms: geniculum canalis facialis.

(05 Mar 2000)

geniculum of facial nervemedical dictionary

<nerve>

<anatomy> A rectangular bend of the facial nerve in the facial canal where it turns posterior in the medial wall of the middle ear (external geniculum), complex loop of facial nerve fibres around the abducens nucleus (internal geniculum).

Synonyms: geniculum nervi facialis.

(05 Mar 2000)

GEnie Servicescomputing dictionary

Preferred term: GE Information Services

<suffix>

<chemistry> A combining form or suffix that denotes the basic steroid unit of the toxic substance, usually a steroid glycoside (e.g., the aglycon portion).

(05 Mar 2000)

genioglossal musclemedical dictionary

Preferred term: genioglossus muscle

genioglossusmedical dictionary

Synonyms: genioglossus muscle.

Origin: G. Geneion, chin, + glossa, tongue

(05 Mar 2000)

genioglossus musclemedical dictionary

GEnie Services, -genin, genioglossal muscle, genioglossus < Prev | Next > geniohyoid, geniohyoideus, genion

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<anatomy, muscle> Origin, mental spine of mandible; insertion, body of hyoid bone; action, draws hyoid forward, or depresses jaw when hyoid is fixed; nerve supply, fibres from ventral primary rami of first and second cervical spinal nerves accompanying hypoglossal.

Synonyms: musculus geniohyoideus, geniohyoid, geniohyoideus.

Origin: Gr. The chin + E. Hyoid.

(05 Mar 2000)

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geniohyoideusmedical dictionary

Synonyms: geniohyoid muscle.

Origin: G. Geneion, chin, + hyoeides, y-shaped, hyoid

(05 Mar 2000)

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The tip of the mental spine, a point in craniometry.

Origin: G. Geneion, chin

(05 Mar 2000)

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<procedure>

Synonyms: mentoplasty.

Origin: G. Geneion, chin, cheek, + plastos, formed

(05 Mar 2000)

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<botany> The edible fruit of a West Indian tree (Genipa Americana) of the order Rubiaceae. It is oval in